APS News

April 1998 (Volume 7, Number 4)

Physicists to be Honored at the Joint APS/AAPT Spring 1998 Meeting

Sixteen APS prizes and awards will be presented during a special ceremonial session at the Society's general meeting in Columbus, Ohio, 18-21 April 1998, held in conjunction with the American Association of Physics Teachers. Citations and biographical information for each recipient follows.


Established in 1997, the Bethe Prize is intended to recognize outstanding work in theory, experiment or observation in the areas of astrophysics, nuclear physics, nuclear astrophysics, or closely related fields.

John Bahcall
Institute for Advanced Study
Citation: "For his fundamental work on all theoretical aspects of the solar neutrino problem and his important contributions to other areas of nuclear astrophysics."

Bahcall received his PhD from Harvard University in 1961. He was on the faculty of California Institute of Technology and has been a Professor of Natural Sciences at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, since 1971. His areas of expertise include models of the galaxy, dark matter, atomic and nuclear physics applied to astronomical systems, stellar evolution, and quasar emission and absorption lines. In collaboration with Raymond Davis Jr., he proposed in 1964 that neutrinos from the sun could be detected via a practical chlorine detector. In the subsequent three decades, he has refined theoretical predictions and interpretations of solar neutrino detectors. Bahcall was also awarded the 1994 Heineman Prize by the American Astronomical Society and the American Institute of Physics for his work on solar neutrinos.


The Tom W. Bonner Prize was established in 1964 to recognize and encourage outstanding experimental research in nuclear physics, including the development of a method, technique, or device that significantly contributes in a general way to nuclear physics research.

Joel M. Moss
Los Alamos National Laboratory
Citation: "For his pioneering experiments using dimuon production in proton-nucleus interactions which demonstrate that there is no antiquark enhancement in nuclei, and which delineate the characteristics of charmonium and open charm production in nuclear systems."

Moss received his PhD in nuclear chemistry from the University of California, Berkeley in 1969. After postdoctoral stints at the Centre d'Etudes Nuclaires de Saclay, France, and the University of Minnesota, he accepted a faculty position at Texas A&M University in 1973, where he carried out extensive experimental studies of nuclear giant resonances and developed the technique of focal-plane polarimetry using a magnetic spectrograph. In 1979 he accepted a position with Los Alamos National Laboratory, where he further developed the techniques of focal-plane polarimetry, applying them to the study of the nuclear spin response function. In 1986 he became spokesman of a new collaboration to study dimuon production in proton-nucleus collisions and subsequently played major roles in two further Fermilab experiments emphasizing aspects of the parton structure of nucleons and nuclei. His current interests are aimed at the future RHIC program, using the PHENIX detector to study high-energy nuclear collisions and the spin structure of the nucleon.


Established in 1994, the Bouchet Award (formerly the Visiting Minority Lectureship) is sponsored by the Research Corporation. It is intended to promote the participation of under-represented minorities in physics by publicizing the lecturer's work and career development to the physics community, especially to young minority physics students.

J.D. Garcia, Jr.
University of Arizona
Citation: "For his contributions to the theory of quantum methods, including the application of time dependent calculations to the understanding of complex collisional processes; and for providing an effective role model for all students, demonstrating that balancing service, profession, and family need not compromise excellence."

Garcia received his BS degree in physics from New Mexico State University in 1957 and his PhD in 1966 from the University of Wisconsin, Madison. He has worked on a variety of areas of atomic physics, including time-dependent Hartfree-Frock theory for ion-atom, ion-surface interactions, and binary encounter approximations. A Fulbright Scholar, a NORDITA Fellow, and a recipient of the Air Force Commendation Medal, Garcia has served as President of the National Physical Sciences Consortium, and chaired the ETS Graduate Record Exam Committee in Physics. He served on the APS Panel on Public Affairs and on the Committee on International Scientific Affairs. He is currently Chair-elect of the Four Corners Section of the APS and is on the Executive Committee of the Forum on Physics and Society.


Established in 1974 by the Forum on Physics and Society, the Burton Award (formerly the Forum Award) is intended to recognize outstanding accomplishments in the endeavor to promote public understanding of issues involving the interface between physics and society.

Robert Lee Park
American Physical Society
Citation: "For 'telling it like it is' with his widely read What's New and through other means on physics-related aspects of science and public policy issues."
Park began his academic career preparing for law school but after an interruption for the Korean War, he switched to physics at the University of Texas where he received his Bachelors Degree in 1958. He received his PhD in 1964 from Brown University where he studied surface physics. In 1965 he joined Sandia Laboratories and in 1969 became head of the Surface Physics Division. In 1974 he was appointed professor of physics and Director of the Center of Materials Research at the University of Maryland, becoming chair of the Physics and Astronomy Department in 1978. In 1982, during a sabbatical, Park opened an Office of Public Affairs in Washington, DC at the request of the APS, and continues to divide his time between the APS and the University of Maryland. He is the author of the What's New weekly electronic commentary on science policy issues, is a regular contributor of opinion articles in major newspapers, and a frequent guest on radio and television news programs.


Endowed by the Heineman Foundation for Research, Educational, Charitable, and Scientific Purposes, Incorporated, in 1959, the Heineman Prize is intended to recognize outstanding publications in the field of mathematical physics.

Nathan Seiberg
Edward Witten
Institute for Advanced Study
Citation: "For their decisive advances in elucidating the dynamics of strongly coupled supersymmetric field and string theories. The deep physical and mathematical consequences of the electric-magnetic duality they exploited have broadened the scope of mathematical physics."

Seiberg completed his undergraduate education in 1977 at Tel-Aviv University and received his PhD from The Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel in 1982. He spent several years as a member at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, NJ, and was a Professor of Physics at The Weizmann Institute for Science and at Rutgers University. Currently he is a Professor at the Institute for Advanced Study. His research interests are in string theory, field theory and particle physics phenomenology. During the last year, he has been working with various collaborators on exact solutions of supersymmetric field theories and string theories in various dimensions.

Witten received his BA at Brandeis University in 1971 and his PhD from Princeton University in 1976. After four years at Harvard University as a postdoctoral fellow and Junior Fellow, he joined the faculty of Princeton University. He has been Professor of Physics at the Institute for Advanced Study since 1987. He is known for his work in elementary particle theory, especially quantum field theory and string theory, and their mathematical implications.


The Lilienfeld Prize was established in 1988 under the terms of a bequest of Beatrice Lilienfeld in memory of her husband, Julius Edgar Lilienfeld to recognize a most outstanding contribution to physics.

Douglas J. Scalapino
University of California, Santa Barbara
Citation: "For his ground-breaking work on computational approaches to the study of quantum many-body problems, particularly those involving strongly correlated electron systems, and his exceptional ability to convey the excitement of physics to diverse audiences."
Scalapino received his PhD from Stanford University in 1961. After working as a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Pennsylvania, he joined the faculty there, leaving in 1969 to join the faculty of the University of California, Santa Barbara, where he has remained ever since. In 1979, along with his colleagues, he drafted the proposal that led the NSF to establish the Institute of Theoretical Physics at UCSB. His research has focused on strongly correlated electron materials and the use of numerical methods to determine their physical properties. His main interest recently has been to understand the properties of the high-Tc superconductors and their pairing mechanism.


Established in 1985 by the General Electric Foundation to recognize outstanding achievement by a woman physicist in the early years of her career, the Maria Goeppert-Mayer Award includes a generous travel allowance to provide opportunities for the recipient to present her achievements to others through public lectures at four institutions of her choice.

Elizabeth J. Beise
University of Maryland
Citation: "For important and challenging electron scattering studies of the structure of the nucleon and few-nucleon systems, and her outstanding experimental skills and leadership ability in all phases of these studies."

Beise received her PhD in experimental nuclear physics from MIT in 1988. She spent two years as a postdoctoral fellow and two additional years as a senior research fellow in the Kellogg Radiation Laboratory at Caltech, where she became interested in parity violation. In 1993 she joined the faculty at the University of Maryland. Her research interests currently focus on using electron scattering to help elucidate the structure of the nucleon and light nuclei through the use of parity violation and polarization observables. She is engaged in experiments at the MIT-Bates and Jefferson laboratories which use parity violating elastic scattering to identify strange quark contributions to nucleon structure. She also is presently involved in an international collaboration to study deuteron electromagnetic properties through measurement of the deuteron's tensor polarization in elastic e-d scattering.


Established in 1993, the Nicholson Medal is intended to honor a physicist who has exhibited extraordinary qualities in such areas as education, the improvement of the quality of life in our society, and fostering international cooperation in physics.

Henry W. Kendall
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Citation: "For his important role in creating and leading the Union of Concerned Scientists, which has had a lasting impact on many scientific issues of concern to society, and for his outstanding personal contributions to these areas and education at all levels."

Kendall is currently J.A. Stratton Professor of Physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He received his PhD from MIT in 1955 and taught at Stanford University for five years before returning to MIT in 1961, where he has remained ever since. Since 1974, he has been Chairman of the Board of the Union of Concerned Scientists, of which he was a founding member. He was awarded the Nobel prize in physics in 1990, along with Jerome Friedman and Richard Taylor. Kendall has been active in writing, analysis and public activities on US energy and defense issues and in the global issues of environmental pressures, resource management and population growth. He served for a decade as a consultant to the Defense Department on classified matters through membership in the Jason Group of the Institute for Defense Analyses. He has testified numerous times before Congress on the threat of nuclear war, energy policy, nuclear power issues, controlling oil well fires, anti-personnel mine clearing and other matters.


Established in 1985 by the friends of W.K.H. Panofsky and the Division of Particles and Fields, this prize is awarded annually in recognition of outstanding achievements in experimental particle physics.

David R. Nygren
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Citation: "For the concept, development, and application of the time projection chamber (TPC), enabling unprecedented studies of complex topologies of charged particles produced in high energy collisions of interest to both high energy and nuclear physics."

Nygren received his PhD in physics from the University of Washington in 1967 and spent two years as research associate at Columbia University before joining the faculty there in 1969. He moved to Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in 1973, where he is presently a senior physicist. An Executive Committee member of the APS Division of Particles and Fields, Nygren was instrumental in the development of the time projection chamber concept for tracking and identification of charged particles in high energy electron-positron collisions. Employed by the Stanford Linear Accelerator's PEP storage ring, as well as several other large detector systems in Japan and Europe, the TPC concept provides three-dimensional images of complex events with high resolution, and simultaneously determines the charged particle types.


Established in 1984 by a grant from the Research Corporation, this prize is intended to honor a physicist whose research in an undergraduate setting has achieved wide recognition and contributed significantly to physics, and who has contributed substantially to the professional development of undergraduate physics students.

Richard W. Peterson
Bethel College
Citation: "For establishing an outstanding research program in applied optics involving undergraduate students at Bethel College, and for his work in infrared spectroscopy and interferometry, holographic interferometry, plasma diagnostics, optical and acoustical measurements, and instructional laboratory experiments in optics."

Peterson received his PhD in physics from Michigan State University in 1969 and worked for two years on a postdoctoral fellow in optical plasma diagnostics at Los Alamos National Laboratory. While on the faculty at Western Illinois University from 1971 to 1980, he continued his work with near and far-infrared interferometry, as well as holographic measurements of plasma and vibratory motion. Since moving to Bethel College in 1980, he has developed new methods of performing interferometric measurements in real-time using heterodyne direct phase detection and stroboscopic, real-time holography. Currently secretary of the American Association of Physics Teachers, Peterson has worked with Bethel students and faculty members as a principal investigator in a 3M and Imation project to perfect interferometric quality control techniques during the production of magnetic media surfaces.


Established in 1984 by contributions from the friends of J.J. Sakurai, this prize is awarded annually in recognition of outstanding achievements in particle theory.

Leonard Susskind

Stanford University
Citation: "For his pioneering contributions to hadronic string models, lattice gauge theories, quantum chromodynamics, and dynamical symmetry breaking."
Susskind received his PhD from Cornell University in 1965. Following a year of postdoctoral fellowship at the University of California at Berkeley, he held the position of Professor of Physics at the Belfer Graduate School of Science in New York, Tel Aviv University in Israel, and is currently Professor of Physics at Stanford University. His numerous research contributions have included the discovery of string theory in 1969; the development of theories of quark confinement in 1972-73; the development of Hamiltonian lattice gauge theory in 1974; an independent discovery of Sakharov's theory of baryogenesis in 1980; and the introduction of string theory into the quantum theory of black holes in the mid- to late-1980s. In 1996, he discovered Matrix Theory as a nonperturbative starting point for string theory.


This award was established in 1974 by the Forum on Physics and Society in recognition of Leo Szilard's concern for the social consequences of science. Its purpose is to recognize outstanding accomplishments by a physicist in promoting the use of physics for the benefit of society in such areas as the environment, arms control, and science policy.

Howard Geller
American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy
David Goldstein
Natural Resources Defense Council
Citation: "For their significant contributions to enhancing efficient energy use, particularly for applying physics and economics to optimize energy-efficient appliance standards."

Geller received his BS in physics from Clark University in 1977 and his MS in mechanical engineering from Princeton University in 1979. During and subsequent to his graduate work, he collaborated with faculty and researchers in Princeton's Center for Energy and Environmental Studies. In 1981 he established the American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy in Washington, DC, where he is currently the Executive Director. The Council is devoted to advancing energy efficiency as a means of promoting both economic prosperity and environmental protection. Geller has advised and conducted energy conservation studies for utilities, governmental agencies and international agencies, and frequently testifies before Congress on energy efficiency.
Goldstein received his PhD in physics from the University of California at Berkeley in 1978. He has worked on energy efficiency and energy policy since the early 1970s, and currently co-directs the Energy Program at the Natural Resources Defense Council. He has worked with state-regional, and national organizations to develop and implement energy efficiency standards for new buildings and appliances. He also negotiated the agreements that led to the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 and Amendments in 1988. A two-time recipient of the Champion of Energy Efficiency Award bestowed by the American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, Goldstein was a founding director of the Consortium for Energy Efficiency.


Established in 1986, the Wilson Prize is intended to recognize and encourage outstanding achievement in the physics of particle accelerators.

Matthew Sands
University of California, Santa Cruz
Citation: "For his many contributions to accelerator physics and the development of electron-positron and proton colliders and for his importance as teacher and role model for many generations of scientists."

Sands received his BA from Clark University in 1940 and his MA from Rice University. He then worked at the Naval Ordnance and Los Alamos Laboratories, where he co-authored a book on pulse electronics. He received his PhD from MIT in 1948 for work on cosmic rays, and then joined the MIT faculty. In 1950 he moved to CalTech, where he helped build and used a 1.5 Gev electron synchrotron. He was the first to demonstrate the importance of quantum effects in electron accelerators; he proposed a high energy proton synchtrotron, using injection from a booster; and co-authored the Feynman Lectures on Physics. In 1963 he became Deputy Director for the construction and early operation of SLAC; worked on the design of SPEAR; and wrote a monograph on electron storage rings. From 1969 until 1985 he taught at the University of California, Santa Cruz, where he is now Professor Emeritus.


Established in 1990 by the Division of Physics of Beams, this award is supported by the Universities Research Association. It is intended to recognize doctoral thesis research of outstanding quality and achievement in beam physics and engineering.

Bita Ghaffari
University of Michigan
Citation: "For development and study of the positron trapping mechanism in a class of Penning traps, that is expected to impact future positronium and anti-hydrogen research."

Dr Ghaffari majored as an undergraduate in Research Physics and in Mathematics at Eastern Michigan University. She completed her PhD in 1997 with Dr. Ralph Conti as her advisor. She built and optimized a positron accumulator, intended for a series of atomic physics experiments with positronium. The anomalous efficient accumulation observed in this cylindrical Penning trap prompted detailed simulation of the charged particle behavior, leading to the discovery of chaotic transport in such systems. This work provided a physical explanation for the source of this transport and may be used to better understand and improve the performance of other charged particle traps and magnetic beams. Dr. Ghaffari received the University of Michigan Terwilliger award for best dissertation in physics and the outstanding dissertation award at the 1997 International Conference on Positron Annihilation. She is working on further study of the nuances and possible application of this transport at Rice University.


Established in 1985 by the Division of Nuclear Physics, this award is intended to recognize a recent PhD in nuclear physics.

Yury G. Kolomensky
University of Massachusetts
Citation: "For experimental work employing spin-dependent deep inelastic scattering which resulted in the most precise determination of spin-dependent structure functions of the neutron and led to a better understanding of the dynamics of quarks and gluons."

Kolomensky received his BS degree in physics from St. Petersburg Technical University in Russia in May of 1991. He received his MS in 1994 and a PhD in nuclear physics from the University of Massachusetts in 1997. His thesis research was based at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, where he was involved in the precision measurements of the nucleon spin structure functions. Upon completing his PhD, Kolomensky joined the High Energy Physics group at CalTech as a postdoctoral fellow. His primary research interests are in conducting novel tests of the Standard Model. He is a member of the BaBar collaboration at SLAC, which will study the properties of CP violation in beta decays, and is developing software for the online system and particle identification.

(Non-PhD granting Institution)

Cameron Geddes
Recipient of the 1997 Apker Award for undergraduate achievement in a non-PhD granting department will also be honored at the banquet at the April Meeting. See January 1998 issue of APS News for a description of Gedde's achievements.

APS encourages the redistribution of the materials included in this newspaper provided that attribution to the source is noted and the materials are not truncated or changed.

Editor: Barrett H. Ripin

April 1998 (Volume 7, Number 4)

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Physical Review Focus
Blume Guides APS Journals Into Electronic Age
Physicists to be Honored at the Joint APS/AAPT Spring 1998 Meeting
A Century of Physics
International News
In Brief
APS Views
Zero Gravity: The Lighter Side of Science
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