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The surface of a 4 µm-thick GaSb film grown on a GaAs(001) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. The image, with a field of view of approximately 1 µm, reveals the nanometer-scale morphology of the spiral-like structures that grow around threading dislocations in the film (caused by the film's 7% lattice mismatch with the substrate). Each threading dislocation creates a 0.3 nm-height "step" where it emerges at the surface.
P. M. Thibado, B. R. Bennett, B. V. Shanabrook, and L. J. Whitman.
Image courtesy: Dr. L. J. Whitman, NRL.