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Department of Energy - Office of Science (DOE-SC)
The Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States, providing more than 40 percent of total funding for this vital area of national importance. It oversees – and is the principal federal funding agency of – the nation’s research programs in high-energy physics, nuclear physics, and fusion energy sciences.
National Science Foundation (NSF)
The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent federal agency created by Congress in 1950 "to promote the progress of science; to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare; to secure the national defense…" With an annual budget of about $6.06 billion, NSF is the funding source for approximately 20 percent of all federally supported basic research conducted by America's colleges and universities. In many fields such as mathematics, computer science and the social sciences, NSF is the major source of federal backing.
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is the central research and development office for the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD). DARPA’s mission is to maintain the technological superiority of the U.S. military and prevent technological surprise from harming our national security.
The Science Mission Directorate (SMD) engages the Nation’s science community, sponsors scientific research, and develops and deploys satellites and probes in collaboration with NASA’s partners around the world to answer fundamental questions requiring the view from and into space. SMD seeks to understand the origins, evolution, and destiny of the universe and to understand the nature of the strange phenomena that shape it.
Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA)
The Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA) invests in high-risk/high-payoff research that has the potential to provide our nation with an overwhelming intelligence advantage over future adversaries.
Advanced Research Projects Agency – Energy (ARPA–E)
TheAdvanced Research Projects Agency – Energy is a bold concept that will provide access to the funding needed to bring the next generation of energy technologies to fruition. ARPA-E aims to: enhance our economic security by identifying technologies with the potential to reduce energy imports from foreign sources; reduce energy-related greenhouse gas emissions; and improve efficiency across the energy spectrum; and ensure we remain a technological leader in developing and deploying advanced energy technologies.