Author Biographies

Roger Hagengruber, Chair, Nuclear Energy Study Group, University of Mexico
John Ahearne, Sigma Xi
Robert J. Budnitz, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Steve Fetter, University of Maryland
Ernest Moniz, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Burton Richter, Stanford Linear Accerator Center
Thomas E. Shea, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Jim Tape, Los Alamos National Laboratory
Frank von Hippel, Princeton University

Roger Hagengruber, Ph.D., is the director of the Office for Policy, Security and Technology (OPS&T) and the Institute for Public Policy (IPP) and a professor of political science at the University of New Mexico. He was formerly a senior vice president at Sandia National Laboratories. From 1991–99, he directed Sandia’s primary mission in nuclear weapons during the transition following the end of the Cold War. He spent much of his 30-year career at Sandia in arms control and non-proliferation activities including several tours in Geneva as a negotiator. In recent years, he has focused on the nuclear transition in the former Soviet Union and in security issues associated with counter-terrorism and has chaired or served on numerous panels that have addressed these areas. He has traveled widely including many visits to Russia where he led the large interactive program between Sandia and the FSU.

His work at the University of New Mexico includes directing the IPP work in public survey including sampling of U.S. and European views on a wide range of security issues. The OPS&T is a relatively new function at UNM that creates multidisciplinary teams from labs and universities to execute projects that explore policy options in areas where security and technology are interrelated.

Dr. Hagengruber has a Ph.D. in experimental nuclear physics from the University of Wisconsin and is a graduate of the Industrial College of the Armed Forces. He has been associated with UNM since 1975.

John F. Ahearne, director of the Ethics Program at Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society and lecturer in public policy at Duke University. Member of the National Academy of Engineering and former chair of the APS Panel on Public Affairs. Vice-chair of the DOE Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee. Former: Deputy Assistant, Principal Deputy Assistant, and acting Assistant Secretary of Defense; commissioner and chairman of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Bachelor’s Degree of Engineering Physics, Cornell University, and PhD (Physics), Princeton University.

Dr. Robert J. Budnitz is currently on the staff of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (University of California), where his work concentrates on the safety and security of nuclear installations. In his career, he has concentrated mostly on the safety of nuclear power reactors, with an emphasis on systems analysis and probabilistic safety assessment, and a special concentration on assuring safety following large earthquakes. His work has also encompassed other nuclear installations, radioactive-waste management, and environmental effects of nuclear-power production. He has worked on many projects aimed at upgrading the safety of the reactors designed in the former Soviet Union. He recently (2002-2004) worked for two years on the Yucca Mountain Project on a special “detail” assignment to DOE in Washington. From 1981 to 2002, he worked in a one-man consulting practice in Berkeley, CA. He is a former Director of Research at the US NRC; and a former Associate Director for Energy & Environment at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. He has served on many national and international review and safety committees, and chaired several of them.

Dr. Budnitz holds a Ph.D. in physics (Harvard), and a B.A. in physics (Yale).

Steve Fetter is a professor in the School of Public Policy at the University of Maryland, College Park. He serves on the National Academy of Sciences’ Committee on International Security and Arms Control, the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee, the Department of Homeland Security's WMD Infrastructure Experts Team, the board of directors of the Sustainable Energy Institute and the Arms Control Association, the board of governors of the RAND Graduate School, the advisory board of Human Rights Watch's Arms Division, the University of Chicago's Advisory Committee on Nuclear Non-Proliferation, and the Board of Editors of Science and Global Security. He is a fellow of the American Physical Society, a recipient of its Joseph A. Burton Forum Award, and a member of its Panel on Public Affairs.

Fetter served as special assistant to the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Policy (1993-94), and as an American Institute of Physics fellow (2004) and a Council on Foreign Relations international affairs fellow (1992) at the State Department. He has been a visiting fellow at Stanford’s Center for International Security and Cooperation, Harvard’s Center for Science and International Affairs, MIT’s Plasma Fusion Center, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. He has served as vice chairman of the Federation of American Scientists, and as associate director of the Joint Global Change Research Institute.

Professor Fetter received a Ph.D. in energy and resources from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1985 and a S.B. in physics from MIT in 1981.

Ernest J. Moniz is Professor of Physics and Director of Energy Studies, Laboratory for Energy and Environment at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He has served on the MIT faculty since 1973, served as head of the Department of Physics and as Director of the Bates Linear Accelerator Center, and co-chaired the major MIT interdisciplinary study “The Future of Nuclear Power,” published in 2003.

Dr. Moniz served as Under Secretary of the Department of Energy from October 1997 to January 2001. In that role, he had programmatic oversight responsibility for the offices of Science; Fossil Energy; Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology; Environmental Management; and Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. He served as DOE chair of the Laboratory Operations Board and of the Research and Development Council. Moniz also led a comprehensive review of the nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship program and served as the Secretary’s special negotiator for Russia initiatives, with a particular focus on the disposition of Russian nuclear weapons materials.

Dr. Moniz also served from 1995 to 1997 as Associate Director for Science in the Office of Science and Technology Policy in the Executive Office of the President, with responsibility spanning the physical, life, and social and behavioral sciences; while there he helped shape the Clinton Administration’s science policy statement, “Science in the National Interest”.

Dr. Moniz is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Humboldt Foundation, and the American Physical Society and a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. He received the 1998 Seymour Cray HPCC Industry Recognition Award for vision and leadership in advancing scientific simulation.

Dr. Moniz received a Bachelor of Science degree in physics from Boston College and a doctorate in theoretical physics from Stanford University.

Dr. Burton Richter, who in 1976 was a recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physics and the E. O. Lawrence Medal of the Department of Energy, is Paul Pigott Professor of Physical Sciences at Stanford University, Emeritus and Director Emeritus of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (1984-1999). Dr. Richter is a member of the Department of Energy’s Secretary of Energy Advisory Board, Laboratory Operations Board, and chairs the Transmutation Subcommittee of the Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee. He is a member of the French Commissaire a l‘Energie Atomique (CEA) Visiting Group. Dr. Richter is also a member of the Jason Group, and chairs the National Research Council’s Board on Physics and Astronomy. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the American Philosophical Society; a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and of The American Physical Society, of which he was President in 1994. He was President of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (1999-2002).

Dr. Richter received his B.S. and his Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1952 and 1956, respectively.

Thomas E. Shea is the Director of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Programs at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), operated by Battelle Memorial Institute for the U.S. Department of Energy.

Prior to joining PNNL, Shea served for 24 years at the International Atomic Energy Agency, where he helped to establish the basic IAEA safeguards implementation parameters and defined safeguards approaches for many complex nuclear facilities. He headed a section of inspectors for 11 years, responsible for safeguards implementation in Japan, India, Taiwan, Australia, and Indonesia. He established the Project Office for the JNFL Rokkasho Reprocessing Facility, and successfully headed a Tripartite Project with the Russian Federation and the People’s Republic of China, regarding safeguards at centrifuge enrichment plants equipped with Russian centrifuges.

During the period from 1996 through 2003, Dr. Shea was Head of the IAEA Trilateral Initiative Office in the Department of Safeguards, responsible for program development and implementation activities associated with a possible new verification role for the IAEA: weapon-origin and other fissile material released from military applications. He also headed IAEA activities related to a fissile material cutoff treaty, publishing a number of articles and briefing delegates to the United Nations Conference on Disarmament on six occasions.

Shea was named to a UN Security Council Panel on disarmament in Iraq in 1999 and carried out an IAEA investigation of the technical requirements for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. He wrote the proliferation-resistance and physical protection parts of the U.S. Generation IV Roadmap and lead the IAEA Safeguards Departmental activities related to proliferation resistance.

Shea was awarded a Special Fellowship from the United States Atomic Energy Commission, and received his Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering and his Doctor of Philosophy in Nuclear Science from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. He is a Fellow of the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management.

Jim Tape is senior advisor for nonproliferation and arms control in the Nonproliferation Division at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Jim joined Los Alamos in 1975 as a technical staff member in the nuclear materials assay group. At Los Alamos, he has been responsible for programs in international policy and analysis; nuclear transfer and supplier policy technical support; domestic safeguards technology development; materials protection, control, and accounting technology transfer to the former Soviet Union; and international safeguards, including cooperative programs with Japan.

In 1994 and 1995 Jim was elected president of the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM), an international technical professional society devoted to all aspects of improving the management of nuclear materials. The INMM elevated him to the rank of Fellow in 2000. Jim is currently the U.S. member of the IAEA Director General's Standing Advisory Group on Safeguards Implementation (SAGSI).

Jim received a BA in physics from The Johns Hopkins University in 1967 and a PhD in nuclear physics from Rutgers University in 1972. He has been a member of APS since 1971.

Frank von Hippel, a theoretical physicist, is a Professor of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University and co-principal investigator of Princeton's research Program on Science and Global Security. From September 1993 through 1994, while Assistant Director for National Security in the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, he played a major role in developing U.S.-Russian cooperative programs to increase the security of Russian nuclear-weapons-useable materials. He is the chairman of the American Physical Society’s Panel on Public Affairs and chairman of the editorial board of Science & Global Security.

Since the early 1980's von Hippel’s research has focused on developing the analytical basis for: deep cuts in the U.S. and Soviet/Russian nuclear stockpiles; removal of their ballistic missiles from launch-on-warning alert; verified nuclear-warhead elimination; a comprehensive nuclear-warhead test ban; and ending production, minimizing use and disposing of excess nuclear-weapons-useable fissile materials.

In 1977, von Hippel shared with Joel Primack the American Physical Society's Forum Award for Promoting the Understanding of the Relationship of Physics and Society in their book, Advice and Dissent: Scientists in the Political Arena. In 1991, the American Institute of Physics published a collection of his articles under the title, Citizen Scientist, in its "Masters of Physics" series. In 1993 he was awarded a 5-year MacArthur Prize Fellowship. In 1994 he received the American Association for the Advancement of Sciences' Hilliard Roderick Prize for Science, Arms Control and International Security.