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New insights into the optical, electrical and structural properties of small molecules and polymers are prerequisites for further advances in organic electronics and photonics. This focus session covers current topics related to the fundamental physics of organic semiconductors. Experimental, theoretical and computational contributions are solicited on the optical, electrical, magnetic and structural properties of organic semiconductors, structure-function relationships related to chemical structure and morphology, device physics and emerging device concepts in electronics, photonics and energy conversion. Bioelectronics and sensing themes are also encouraged.
Organizers: Elizabeth von Hauff (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, firstname.lastname@example.org), Dean Delongchamp (NIST, email@example.com)
The length scales in common between optical phenomena and those readily accessible in polymers and soft matter have provided a unique opportunity: many optical techniques are well-suited for exploring important polymer physics problems, and soft matter offers advantageous methods for fabricating structures of interest for photonics. This focus session invites contributions on all aspects of optics and photonics pertaining to polymer science and soft matter. Possible topics of interest may include: fluorescence or single-molecule measurements of polymer dynamics, super-resolution microscopy and imaging, fabrication of optical materials and devices, etc.
Organizer: Muzhou Wang (Northwestern University, firstname.lastname@example.org)
This focus session invites talks on polymer electrolytes, polymer electrolyte containing ionic liquids (ILs), poly(ionic liquids) (PILs) and studies on the inclusion of inorganic materials into ILs to enhance ionic conductivity and elucidate ionic transport mechanisms for electrochemical applications. Experimental studies on synthesis, self-assembly and ion transport properties on IL containing systems, theoretical and computational works on understanding the effect of structural transitions of IL on conductivity mechanisms, and works on interfacial properties at electrochemical interfaces are all welcome.
Organizer: Pinar Akcora (Stevens Institute of Technology, email@example.com)
Organizer: Samanvaya Srivastava (University of California, Los Angeles, firstname.lastname@example.org)
The phenomenon of polyelectrolyte complexation can take many forms including coacervation, precipitations, and multilayer assembly, among others. Understanding the fundamental physics of these complexes, as well as how these complexes can be manipulated through a variety of stimuli including salt, pH, temperature is of utmost importance for a wide variety of applications including underwater adhesives, drug-delivery, and membranes. This focus session covers all aspects of polyelectrolyte complexation, including the structure, dynamics and bulk properties of complexes, advances in chemical synthesis techniques and all methods of study, as well as emerging application areas in these systems.
Organizer: Samanvaya Shivastrava (University of California, Los Angeles, email@example.com)
For several decades, nanoscale fillers have been added to polymeric materials with the goal of enhancing or tuning materials properties. Although the field of polymer nanocomposites has grown considerably, there are still fundamental questions that remain unanswered. This focus session invites talks on recent developments in polymer nanocomposites ranging from fundamentals of polymer/nanoparticle mixtures to application-related materials that exhibit enhanced mechanical, optical, electronic, or magnetic properties. Areas of interest include polymer and nanoparticle dynamics in nanocomposites, mechanical properties including glassy behavior, fracture, creep, and viscoelastic properties, fabrication of polymer nanocomposites, structural characterization and phase behavior, and structure/property relationships encompassing optical, electronic, and magnetic properties. We welcome experimental and computational contributions.
Organizers: Karen Winey (University of Pennsylvania, firstname.lastname@example.org), Rob Hickey (Penn State, email@example.com)
Recent advances in scattering, microscopy, and spectroscopy techniques will transform how we characterize polymer microstructure at the atomic, molecular and mesoscopic scale, as well as how we measure polymer dynamics across broad timescales. We welcome contributions to this focus session describing recent advances in characterization of complex multi-functional soft materials over a broad range of length and time scales. This includes work related to the use of X-ray, photon, neutron, and electron beams to explore structure-property relationships for polymers involved in energy, biological or mechanical applications, as well as advances in modeling and analyses to complement structural characterization. Works focused on the use of resonant X-ray scattering, contrast-varied neutron scattering, and analytical transmission electron microscopy to probe the structure and dynamics of polymers are particularly encouraged, as well as in-operando and in-situ experiments or experiments focused on multimodal characterization techniques.
Organizers: Xiaodan Gu (University of Southern Mississippi, Xiaodan.Gu@usm.edu), Enrique Gomez (Penn State, firstname.lastname@example.org)
Broadband Dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) is a well-established technique used to characterize soft matter at molecular level. The technique is employed to investigate phase transitions, molecular relaxation processes and conduction phenomena of polar and nonpolar molecules over a large frequency range in both bulk and confined geometries, e.g. nanopores, ultrathin polymer films, nanocomposites, and freestanding membranes. We invite talks that address recent experimental advancement of BDS and novel theoretical frameworks rationalizing dielectric relaxation phenomena. Topics of interest include dynamics and phase transitions in amorphous, partially ordered and ordered systems, glassy dynamics and its scaling under different variables (pressure, temperature, electric fields, etc.), investigation of confinement effects, dielectric spectroscopy spatially resolved at micro- and nanoscale, application of BDS to water and hydrogen bonded systems and biomacromolecules.
Oranizer: Simone Napolitano (Université libre de Bruxelles, email@example.com)
Numerous experiments and computer simulations have shown that polymers under nanoconfinement display variations of dynamic and mechanical properties with sample dimensions. In the case of supported polymer films, variations are caused by competitions between the free and substrate surfaces of the films, which tend to enhance and decrease the polymer mobility, respectively. However, the physics of how these interfaces exercise their influences remain unclear. It is especially puzzling why the length scales over which near-interface dynamics are perturbed are on the order of tens to hundreds of nanometers. The most recent theoretical and experimental studies have explored influences from the stiffness of the confining interface, chemistry of the substrate surface and/or polymer, free volume exchange between the polymer and its interfaces, pressure, chain connectivity, and degree of sample equilibrium, etc. This focus session calls for papers addressing these and related questions about confined polymer glasses.
Organizers: Jane Lipson (Dartmouth, Jane.E.G.Lipson@dartmouth.edu), Ophelia Tsui (The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, firstname.lastname@example.org)
The block copolymer thin films community has experienced tremendous growth, advancing our understanding of how surface interactions, thin film confinement, and processing conditions affect the morphology, orientation, and long-range order of nanostructured self-assembly. These advances have been made possible in part through the development of theories to explain self-assembly, expanded use of simulations to provide molecular-level insight, adoption of new and creative experimental methodologies that harness thermodynamic driving forces and overcome kinetic limitations, and translation of fundamental understanding into application in nanolithography and nanoscale membranes. This session seeks contributions in this area, spanning theory, simulation, experiment, and technological application, with a special emphasis on contributions spanning two or more of these categories.
Organizers: Julie Albert (Tulane University, email@example.com), Chris Arges (Louisiana State University, firstname.lastname@example.org)
Advances in polymer chemistry have enabled synthesis of increasingly sophisticated sequences of monomers along polymer backbones. This has moved the possibilities for polymer sequences beyond traditional block copolymer or random copolymers, and toward a full monomer sequence space such as the one used by biology for advanced self-assembly and information storage. This presents a challenge to the polymer physics community, due to vast parameter spaces, sequence dispersity, and the inherent conflict between monomer specificity versus the traditional, statistical description of polymer materials. This session will focus on how these challenges are being addressed, including experimental, computational, and theoretical efforts to understand gradient copolymers, sequence-defined polymers, precision copolymers, and multi-block copolymers. The structure-sequence relationships in these materials are of particular interest, as are new sequence-based design rules and their use in obtaining new polymer properties.
Organizer: Charles Singh (University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana, email@example.com)
This session will address the physics underlying deposition-based polymer processing methods such as the vapor deposition of monomers and polymers, photolithography, layer-by-layer, and electrospinning. Special focus will be placed on how the kinetics and thermodynamics associated with these processing methods affect polymer morphology and performance. Contributions elucidating process-structure-property relationships between processing parameters such as temperature and pressure and properties such as mechanical strength, optical properties, and electrical conductivity are particularly welcomed.
Organizer: Malancha Gupta (University of Southern California, firstname.lastname@example.org)
3D printing is evolving from rapid prototyping to additive manufacturing, enabled by improvements in processes and part properties. Understanding the physics associated with the printing process is important for realization of the potential to broaden the utility of 3D printing of a wide range of materials including polymers, composites, and colloidal slurries. Areas of interest for this focus session include, but are not limited to, photo polymerization, extrusion processes, laser sintering, new formulations, functional polymers in 3D printing, polymer binders for metal printing and new functional properties. Experimental and theoretical contributions are welcome.
Organizers: Bryan Vogt (University of Akron, email@example.com), Jonathan Seppala (NIST, firstname.lastname@example.org)
Polymer Crystallization is at the core of novel polymer processes from solution or from the melt and materials with unique functionalities. This session covers research on a wide spectrum of crystalline polymers, from fundamental aspects of the morphogenesis of the liquid-solid phase transition to properties affected by the self-assembly of crystalline macromolecules. Topics on nucleation such as melt-memory, and self-seeding; crystallization kinetics, including linear spherulitic growth and overall crystallization; macromolecular morphology; and physical and mechanical properties affected by polymorphism or by the overall crystalline state will be included in this session.
Organizer: Rufina Alamo (Florida State University, email@example.com)
The emergence of chirality of is one of the most ubiquitous themes in self-organized structures in soft materials, from biological assemblies of proteins, to chiral liquid crystalline phases to polymer morphologies. The session will bring together experimental and theoretical researchers across the fields of polymer physics, soft matter and biophysics interested in characterizing and understanding the mechanisms and implications of the emergent chirality, at multiple scales in self-organizing soft matter systems. It will highlight new advances in several key areas, including chirality in blocks copolymers and semi-crystalline polymers, chirality and defects in liquid crystals, the emergence of spontaneous chirality (twist-bend phases), frustrated chirality in self-assembled membranes and fibers, form and function of chiral superstructures in biological matter, and geometry/theory of multi-scale chiral assemblies.
Organizer: Greg Grason (University of Massachussetts at Amherst, firstname.lastname@example.org)
This session welcomes contributions on systems in which polymers induce structural transitions in soft materials (e.g. colloidal aggregation, hydrogel de-swelling, liquid-liquid phase separation). It will cover both fundamental studies of the underlying physics and chemistry as well as applications of these ideas for novel materials design/regulation. Examples include: (i) Tuning colloidal aggregation by using structured particles, like those with rough surfaces, Janus behavior, or non-spherical shapes; (ii) Forming new phases of matter from active particles in polymer solutions, where motility competes with polymer-induced forces; (iii) Regulating biological function via de-swelling of biological hydrogels like mucus, phase transitions and crowding effects within cells, aggregation of red blood cells, and bundling of microtubules.
Organizer: Sujit Datta (Princeton University, email@example.com)
Advanced experimental and theoretical modeling have facilitated investigations of polymer physics in the cell cytoskeleton, chromatin in the nucleus, DNA in nanochannels, and polymers adsorbed on interfaces and surfaces. Many questions arise from how very strong confinement affect polymer rigidity, conformation, relaxation dynamics, and reaction kinetics. Theoretical developments have been tightly coupled with new experimental observations of biopolymers such as DNA, actin, microtubules, chromatin in the cell nucleus, on lipid membranes, and in nano-fabricated channels. Strong confinement induces changes in polymer conformation and dynamics that affect phase transitions, abnormal transport, and gene translation . This focus session welcomes experimental and theoretical contributions advancing this field.
Organizer: Yeng-Long Chen (Academia Sinica, firstname.lastname@example.org)
Increasingly, polymer research is incorporating data-analytic techniques such as machine learning to classify materials and predict new properties. These techniques synergize with data generation via both data mining and high-throughput studies. Some particular successes have involved the predictions of tensile strength and glass transition of new materials from machine learning applied to measured or computational data. This session solicits contributions from the cutting edge of research at the interface of polymer physics and "big data,” utilizing new algorithms and techniques to revolutionize polymer materials research and development. Of particular interest are efforts in generating vast datasets of structure and properties, synthesizing property databases from the literature to inform targeted molecular design and optimization, and leveraging data for prediction and design of polymeric materials.
Organizers: Debra Audus (NIST, email@example.com), John Whitmer (University of Notre Dame, firstname.lastname@example.org)
The macroscopic properties of polymers and soft materials are difficult to predict and are determined by the self-assembly as well as processing parameters of the nanoscopic units, including biopolymers (lipids, proteins and nucleic acids), polymers, and inorganic building blocks. Since the final structure is difficult to predict a priori from knowledge of the atomic constituents alone, simulation and theory play a critical role to test, validate, predict and guide the design and characterization of novel functional materials. This session welcomes contributions advancing the computational and theoretical prediction and understanding of polymers and biopolymers.
Organizers: Yaroslava Yingling (North Carolina State University, email@example.com), Alexey Onufriev (Virginia Tech, firstname.lastname@example.org)
This session welcomes experimental, theoretical, or computational approaches highlighting how polymer charge, elasticity, extensibility, flexibility and chemistry influence the shear, extensional and/or interfacial rheological response, and how the interplay of macromolecular hydrodynamics, non-Newtonian fluid mechanics and rheological properties influences processing conditions and processability. Contributions are solicited for rheological studies motivated by emerging applications including printing, additive manufacturing, electro-spinning and centrifugal spinning, hydrogels for biomedical applications, fracking, materials for energy harvesting or storage, among others. Contributions addressing questions related to nonlinear viscoelasticity of entangled solutions and melts, elastic instabilities, characterization of extensional viscosity, gelation kinetics, order-disorder transitions, self-assembled, supramolecular and/or associative polymers, properties of complexes and coacervates, and response to large amplitude oscillatory shear are welcome.
Organizers: Vivek Sharma (University of Illinois at Chicago, email@example.com), Samanvaya Srivastava (University of Caifornia, Los Angeles, firstname.lastname@example.org)
Tribology studies the friction, wear, and lubrication of interacting surfaces in relative motion. It is highly multidisciplinary, and includes complex physics and materials science. Tribology is industrially relevant for a wide range of materials, and polymers or soft matter, are often surfaces of interest. Both macroscopic (tribometers) and microscopic (probe or AFM) techniques have been used for these studies, but a myriad of complexities, including heat generated through friction, surface wear that deposits debris in the lubricating fluid or on the surface, and low modulus of soft substrates, are a challenge to fundamental understanding. In addition, the underlying physics of using functional surfaces such as those with porous structures, brushes or patterns remain largely unexplored. This session welcomes submissions reporting recent experimental and theoretical developments that improve the understanding of polymer tribology.
Organizer: Catheryn Jackson (The Dow Chemical Company, CLJackson@dow.com)
Polymer networks are an extremely diverse class of materials that possess properties along a spectrum from soft lubricants to nearly indestructible thermosets. Network properties can be designed to be static, or they can be designed to evolve autonomously over time with or without a physical stimulus. Their unique properties arise from an interplay between network connectivity and morphology (or topology), chemical composition, molecular mobility and solubility, and degree of heterogeneity and order. Recent developments in controlled polymerization techniques and orthogonal cross-linking methods have especially permitted control over network topology and properties. This focus session covers recent advances in experiment, theory, and simulation of polymer networks, including model polymer networks, elasticity and fracture of swollen gels, healing of polymer networks, mechanics of charged gels and double networks, non-linear deformations in swollen and dry network systems, novel synthesis approaches, and kinetics of cross-linking and curing.
Organizer: Ryan Toomey (University of South Florida, email@example.com)
Polymeric materials that respond to external stimuli through a change in their physical properties (thermal, electrical, optical, etc.) are referred to as stimuli-responsive materials. These materials can respond to a variety of external cues, including temperature, salt, pH, mechanical force, or electrical potential and they have been utilized in a variety of applications ranging from drug delivery, origami, sensing, artificial muscles, to many more. This session will focus on recent advances in the underlying physics of stimuli-responsive materials and the subsequent characterization of their response at various length scales ranging from single molecule studies through bulk experiments.
Organizers: Chelsea Davis (Purdue University, firstname.lastname@example.org), Matthew Green (Arizona State University, email@example.com)
Current theories and experimental understanding of the unique nonlinear, anisotropic, viscoelastic, and temperature-dependent behavior of polymers and soft matter under extreme loading conditions often focus on continuum modeling approaches. There is an increasing need to understand how soft matter physics governs these continuum responses and the related deformation and failure under these extreme conditions. Topics covered by this focus session will include high rate deformation and failure testing; cavitation; localized loading geometries such as cutting and puncture; and experimental methods for monitoring microstructural evolution.
Organizers: Shelby Hutchens (University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana, firstname.lastname@example.org), Al Crosby (University of Massachussetts at Amherst, email@example.com), Aaron Forster (NIST, firstname.lastname@example.org)
The session focuses on polymers under reactive conditions, including ionizing radiation and extreme pressures and temperatures. Topics will include studies of chemical changes such as chain scission, backbiting, and decomposition reactions due to external stimuli, such as shock compression, accelerated aging (high temperature) studies, and exposure to radiation or outgassing. All of these scenarios can induce significant changes in the mechanical properties of any given polymer structure due to the ensuing chemical reactivity, which can be largely unknown for many systems and sets of conditions. This session will also explore the effects of various environmental factors, such as changes in relative humidity and different gaseous atmospheres. The session will span experimental and computational approaches, including novel machine learning studies on polymers under reactive conditions.
Organizers: Nir Goldman (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, email@example.com), Mike Armstrong (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, firstname.lastname@example.org), Jonathan Crowhurst (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, email@example.com)
Understanding how quenched environmental disorder impacts self-assembly and transport is a long- standing problem of fundamental interest in mathematics, physics, and engineering. Interest in this problem has recently become revitalized due to many technological applications that rely on the use of soft materials like polymer solutions, colloidal dispersions, immiscible fluid mixtures, and even bacterial suspensions in disordered environments like porous rocks, tissues, or hydrogels. Prominent examples include hydraulic fracturing, oil recovery, water remediation, CO2 sequestration, drug delivery in biological tissues, transport in biological hydrogels, geological tracer monitoring, and even flow in trees. As a result, this topic is of broad interest to many different disciplines.
As a field, we have made tremendous progress in understanding the bulk behavior of soft materials. The challenge now is to extend this understanding to disordered environments, where physical or chemical factors alter material microstructure, the material itself alters the environment, and these coupled interactions give rise to new emergent behavior. The scientific challenge is now to understand, and develop ways to control, these interactions. The goal now is to answer questions like: how does the microstructure of a soft material change as it navigates a disordered environment? How does it dynamically restructure its environment? How does this restructuring in turn impact material transport and function?
On the experimental and simulation side, recent advances have enabled direct visualization and characterization of 3D models of disordered biological, environmental, and engineering systems. These advances are motivating the development of new theories that can harness the output of these new tools. On the theoretical side, recent advances have enabled more efficient computation of equilibrium and non-equilibrium (e.g. in flow) properties of soft materials in complex geometries over a wide variety of length and time scales. These models are now finding use in the diverse settings described above.
Due to these recent advances, an explosion of work is ongoing in this topic. This can be seen from the increasing number of high-profile papers on the topic that have been published in the last two years in journals like PNAS and PRL. An invited or focus session on the topic is timely and important. It will engage current GSOFT members, and will also help to bring new people to the GSOFT community: for example, from the environmental, hydrological, geological, and biological communities. There are clear opportunities to connect with other APS groups like DPOLY (e.g. polymer self-assembly in disordered environments, fabrication of nanocomposites), DBIO (e.g. transport in disordered biological tissues, swarming behavior in disordered environments), and GSNP (e.g. statistical and nonlinear behavior of transport in disordered systems).
Organizer: Sujit Datta (Princeton University, firstname.lastname@example.org)
Soft composite materials, comprised of multiple polymeric and/or colloidal species, are ubiquitous in biology and industry alike. Yet the physical principles determining their structural and mechanical properties are far from understood. These versatile materials, ranging from the cell cytoskeleton and mucus to carbon nanotube-polymer nanocomposites and liquid crystals, have numerous applications from tissue engineering to high-performance energy-storage. Importantly, the unique mechanical properties that emerge in soft composites often cannot be deduced from those of the corresponding single-component systems, suggesting a complex interplay between the different constituents. As such, the physics underlying these emergent properties remain poorly understood. This session will focus on the structure and rheology of soft composites, as well as their functional design principles. A combination of experimental and theoretical studies of wide-ranging biological and synthetic systems will serve to elucidate the molecular-level principles that govern the unique properties of soft composites.
Organizers: Moumita Das (Rochester Institute of Technology, email@example.com), Rae Robertson-Anderson (University of San Diego, firstname.lastname@example.org)
Organizer: Stephen Whitelam (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory)
Machine learning has generated much recent excitement within the physics community, and provides a powerful new tool to analyze and understand many physical systems. Usage of machine learning is still in its infancy, and many interesting challenges remain unexplored. What machine learning methods are most appropriate? How do we best use the tools to obtain scientific insight? Should experimental procedures be redesigned to take advantage of machine learning?
Organizers: Chris H. Rycroft (Harvard University, email@example.com), Shmuel Rubinstein (Harvard University, firstname.lastname@example.org)
Fabric, knitted and knotted structures are ubiquitous in our every-day life. Each morning, we get dressed in clothes that serve a multitude of functions, from keeping us warm and dry, to just style. Beyond weaved textiles, knitted scarfs, gloves, hats, and seaters, are part of everyone’s wardrobe. Furthermore, our shoes often contain laces, which, after decades of trying, most of us still tie in the wrong (i.e., not in the most mechanical performant) way. Knots are also instrumental to many other activities including sailing, climbing, and surgery, where their mechanical failure can lead to drastic consequences. These technologies have been an integral part of society for millennia, even if their design, manufacturing, and usage tends to rely primarily on empirical principles. Recently, at the interface of the physics and mechanics communities, there has been an upsurge in interest to develop a predictive understanding for these class of soft/flexible structures based on fundamental principles that rely on the nonlinear mechanics of slender structures and statistical mechanics. The necessary ingredients for modeling include the geometry and topology of the filaments, (self)contact and friction, and the extent of intrinsic disorder. Part of the motivation to revisit these systems is a drive to more thoroughly rationalize their mechanical performance. Perhaps an even more significant motivation for the recent developments has been the recognition that revisiting the study of fabrics, knits, and knots can lead to novel ideas for the design of metamaterials with novel features, functions, and properties. With this focus session, we seek to bring together representatives from the various groups studying fabrics, knits, and knots to cross-pollinate research methodologies, identify previously unrecognized connections in modeling strategies, and explore new research directions. The proposed venue will provide a modern unified perspective to these systems, under the umbrella of the mechanics, geometry, and topology of the underlying structures.
Organizer: Pedro M. Reis (École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Switzerland, email@example.com)
The transport of fluid-suspended objects by various driving forces -- phoresis -- is an abundant and useful phenomenon. The driving force, together with the mobility of the objects inside the fluid, determine the resulting linear and angular velocities. Examples are the transport of charged particles by an electric field (electrophoresis), dielectric particles by an electric field gradient (dielectrophoresis), magnetic particles by a magnetic field gradient (magnetophoresis), and particles in general by centrifugation, gravity (sedimentation), temperature gradient (thermophoresis), or concentration gradient (diffusophoresis). A body of work has been building up in the past several years concerning new means to drive colloidal objects in more intricate and programmable ways, using their shape, charge distribution, magnetic properties, etc. This research has been advanced by new experimental capabilities to produce shape-tailored colloidal particles in large numbers, as well as the recognition of new physical behaviors exhibited by such suspensions. Research in this area has foreseeable applications, e.g., for drug delivery. This category of externally driven systems should be distinguished from that of active, self-propelled particles, which has already attracted a lot of attention.
Examples of recent achievements include: (a) transport of chiral magnetic colloids by rotating magnetic fields; (b) alignment of arbitrarily shaped objects through time-dependent forcing protocols; (c) driving of spherical particles possessing nonuniform temperature distributions; (d) stabilization of sedimenting suspensions by self-aligning objects; (e) electrophoretic response of objects with arbitrary shapes and charge distributions. The (possibly programmable) coupling between translation and rotation, characterizing such colloidal objects and encoding their chiral response to driving, plays a key role in many of these systems.
Organizer: Haim Damant (Tel Aviv University, firstname.lastname@example.org)
The last few years have seen a fast-growing interest in the physics of soft interfaces, from understanding the fundamental mechanics of compliant solid surfaces to applications in biology, tribology, and soft robotics. Work in this area spans the intersection of GSOFT, DPOLY, GSNP, and DBIO. Last year, I co-organized a GSOFT/DPOLY focus session in this area with John Kolinski, and it was extremely well-attended; we ended up having a three-part session with an additional invited speaker, and had a full house in the smaller conference rooms in LA. The goal of this year's session is to continue that momentum, again highlighting the many novel works that span the scope of mechanics in its entirety, from fluids to solids and especially in between.
Organizer: Katharine E. Jensen (Williams College, email@example.com)
This proposed focus session would address the flow of particulatemedia, broadly defined. It would seek to bring together studies thatspan suspension and granular rheology, as well as other soft flowingparticle-based materials. It is motivated by recent observations ofcommon underlying behavior for particulate materials where theconstituent particles span a broad range of spatial scales, and wherethe dynamics may occur over a similarly broad temporal scale. Anexample is the relationship between discontinuous shear thickening insuspensions, and shear jamming in dry granular materials. Juxtaposinga range of dynamics particular behavior will provide opportunities tobetter understand the physics of a broad range of systems.
Organizers: Jeff Morris (Levich Institute and Dept of Chemical Engineering, CUNY, firstname.lastname@example.org), Bob Behringer (Duke University, email@example.com)
The paradigm of “active matter” has had notable successes over the past two decades in describing self-organization in a surprisingly broad class of biological and bio-inspired systems: from flocks of starlings to robots, down to bacterial colonies, motile colloids and the cell cytoskeleton. Started nearly 25 years ago from the first pioneering works by Vicsek, Toner and Tu, the physics of active matter has now become a mature research area at the interface between soft matter, biophysics, statistical physics and fluid mechanics, with hundreds of articles published every year and dozens of workshop and conferences organized around the world. Active systems are generic out-of-equilibrium assemblies of autonomous building blocks that are able to move and perform mechanical work. Depending on the abundance of chemical fuel, the amount of positional and orientational order, as well as the geometrical and topological properties of the environment, these active materials have been shown to give rise to an extraordinary variety of self-organized spatiotemporal patterns, including collective motion, oscillating patterns, ordered arrangements of defects and turbulent flows at low Reynolds number. Concepts and tools from non-equilibrium statistical physics are central in investigating this broad class of internally driven systems, with the goal of identifying “universal” behavior. Quantitative experiments in this field are now developing at a rapid pace.
Organizers: Luca Giomi (Leiden University, The Netherlands, firstname.lastname@example.org), Daniel Pearce (University of Geneva, Switzerland, email@example.com), Benjamin Loewe (Syracuse University, firstname.lastname@example.org)
It has recently been shown that elastic materials may be architected to display remarkable functionality when harnessing mechanical instabilities. These so called mechanical-metamaterials are however often passive elastic structures, which undergo deformations when prompted by external loading. Different modes of actuation have been proposed, such as pressure controlled grabbing fingers in soft-robotics, swelling in shape-morphing gels, electrostatics in dielectric elastomers or temperature in liquid cristal polymers or shape memory alloys. How can these different solution be integrated in future manufactured devices? We are seeking contributions studying the fundamental and practical aspects of the integration of actuation in the design of soft materials. Particularly, we are interested in the (1) the mechanisms of amplification of an input via the architecture of the materials and (2) the programability of a complex response using a simple mode of actuation.
Organizer: José Bico (PMMH-ESPCI-PSL, Sorbonne Université, email@example.com)
Organizer: Guillaume Duclos (Brandeis University, firstname.lastname@example.org), Wylie Ahmed, Cal State Fullerton, email@example.com
Active fluids refer to viscous suspensions of active entities that can convert internal or free energy into mechanical work. This encompasses living systems composed of biopolymers with molecular motors or swimming bacteria. The field of active matter has been quite successful at describing dynamical pattern formation in out-of-equilibrium fluids, but quantitative measurement of the microscopic active stresses and how they affect the emergence of collective flows and the rheological properties of the material are still missing. Indeed, the nature and the amplitude of the active stress have been hypothesized based on single filament or single cell measurements but their quantification is very difficult in dense active suspensions. These measurements are fundamental because they provide the missing link between theory and experiments that will lead to more quantitative descriptions of living matter. The goal of this focus session is to expose the members of GSOFT and of the related divisions DPOLY and DBIO to some of the most recent and exciting work on soft active materials composed of active polymers or living cells, with a special focus on quantitative measurement of the active stresses as well as their macroscopic rheological properties.
Organizer: Guillaume Duclos (Brandeis University, firstname.lastname@example.org)
After recent breakthroughs in the search for ordered optimal tessellations (for example, including Frank-Kasper phases in copolymer melts), now findings of the optimal properties of amorphous tessellations are emerging, e.g., in biological tissues.
At the same time, there have been intensive studies of amorphous systems with an anomalous suppression of density fluctuations on large length scales, known as hyperuniformity. This geometric concept qualitatively and quantitatively characterizes a hidden-order in amorphous states that allows for unique physical properties--combining those of crystalline and disordered phases. Thus it offers candidates for optimal amorphous tessellations of space.
This session will foster a discourse between these subfields and about the role of hyperuniformity in the search for tessellations that are optimal with respect to geometrical and physical properties. The session will discuss both a theoretical understanding, computational exploration and experimental verification of the temporal evolution of growing or compressed soft cellular entities and the formation of surprising ordered and amorphous phases and their unexpected structures and physical properties. The applications range from functional designer materials to the cell biology of membrane organelles.
Organizers: Gerd Schroeder-Turk (Murdoch University, Perth, Australia, email@example.com), Lisa Manning (Syracuse University, firstname.lastname@example.org), Greg Grason (University of Massachussetts, Amherst, email@example.com), Michael Klatt (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany, firstname.lastname@example.org)
Materials processing is the series of operations that transform rawmaterials into parts or finished products. These processes ofteninclude mechanical instabilities and geometrical nonlinearitiesarising from the coupling of elasticity with other phenomena such asplastic deformation, chemical reactions, fracture, and adhesion,topics that have attracted much recent interest in the physicscommunity. This session seeks to view materials processing techniquesthrough the lens of such geometrically nonlinear (sometimesaffectionately known as “extreme”) mechanics. Topics of interestinclude casting, forming, machining, web handling, surface coatings,welding and joining, laser processing, and 3D printing, as applied tometals, soft materials, functional materials, advanced composites, andmore. These applied processes can be looked at from a fundamentalpoint of view in terms of instabilities, wave propagation,nonlinearities, inverse problem formulation, active materials, andelasticity of slender structures. This session aims to bring togetherresearchers from diverse backgrounds in materials processing,structural mechanics, applied mathematics, materials science, and softmatter physics, to open new areas of interdisciplinary research.
Organizer: Frédérick Gosselin (Polytechnique Montreal, Canada, email@example.com), James Hanna (Virginia Tech, firstname.lastname@example.org)
Active matter is an exciting, current topic of discussion. Recent exciting results on enzymes and their ability to enhance their diffusion rates due to catalytic turn-over have advanced the ideas that the principles of self-organization in active systems are relevant at nanoscales of individual proteins. In addition, these proteins have been used as propellants for larger, microscale active matter systems, so understanding their mechanism of action at the enzyme level will inform their mechanism in groups and as fuels.
Organizers: Jennifer L. Ross (University of Massachussetts, Amherst, email@example.com), Ayusman Sen (Pennsylvania State University, firstname.lastname@example.org)
Fracture mechanics are at the foundation of understanding material integrity. In light of the many applications for soft materials that have developed recently, having an understanding of the failure modalities of these materials is important. This session will be distinctive in its focus on fracture and failure mechanisms in soft materials as opposed to more traditional brittle solids. In contrast to many construction materials such as glass and concrete, fracture in soft materials is likelier to occur at large deformations, and soft materials have a plethora of dissipative mechanisms available to them to prevent stress localization; thus the nature of the material is important.
Organizer: John Kolinski (École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Switzerland, email@example.com)
Soft matter structure and dynamics remains a theoretical and experimental challenge. It is a timely opportunity to investigate how this fundamental understanding underpins new functionalities of soft materials spanning robotics, medicine, and energy. This focus session gathers the latest advances on collective structure formation and dynamics to guide new functions in soft materials. Aspects of self-assembly within liquid crystals, ionic liquids, and other complex media will be covered, balancing theory, computation and experiments.
Organizers: Cecilia Leal (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, firstname.lastname@example.org), Roy Beck (Tel-Aviv University, email@example.com)
Organizers: Jie Ren (Merck & Co., firstname.lastname@example.org), Joshua Dijksman (Wageningen University, email@example.com), Robert Behringer (Duke University, firstname.lastname@example.org)
Soft matter encompasses a wide range of systems including multi-phase flows, gels, porous structures and powders. These systems are not just scientifically interesting; they are also encountered in many industrial contexts including energy, pharmaceutics, food, consumer products and healthcare. This co-sponsored GSOFT/FIAP session aims to bring together experts from academic and industrial backgrounds to discuss this overlapping interest. Identifying common interests and challenges in this theme across academia and industries should bring both new fundamental insights and help find solutions to tackle practical challenges. The focus point for this session is “physics at soft matter interfaces” covering surfactants, membranes, friction, adhesion etc. Many soft matter systems are multi-particular, multi-component, or multi-phase in nature. Precisely the lack of solid understanding of their interface dynamics is often a limiting factor in industrial settings, for example in materials processing. This focus session is also dedicated to Bob Behringer, who helped with organization of the session before his passing.
The remarkable properties and functions of natural materials emerge upon assembly of biomolecular components into hierarchical structures. Material scientists have long been inspired by nature seeking to use bioinspired design principles to engineer materials with superior properties. Recent years have witnessed a wave of renewed interest in designing bioinspired materials and structures especially following the rapid development of modern fabrication technology, such as nanofabrication and 3D printing. For example, a number of novel top-down or bottom-up fabrication approaches have been developed to tailor materials into bioinspired structures with a variety of superior mechanical (such as ultra-lightweight, ultra-tough, ultra-strong and ultra-stretchable), optical (such as structural coloration, anti-reflection and optical lenses), thermofluidic (such as omniphobicity, water harvesting, anisotropic fluid transport), and other properties. These complex materials are typically hierarchical and multiphase, with heterogeneities, including particle and fiber inclusions, pores, internal interfaces, and gradients that impact properties, as well as multiple bonding schemes, both dynamic and covalent, offering new time and length scales for reconfiguration. Moreover, various activation mechanisms have been introduced to trigger biomimetic movements or structural deformations, thus resulting in active, adaptable and stimuli-responsive materials. Understanding the physics governing formation of novel bioinspired materials and their stimuli-responsive behaviors is the key challenge to advance their design and uncover their potential. The goal of this session is to create a platform for experts working on bioinspired materials, to discuss the underlying novel material physics across different length and time scales and its role in determining functional material properties. We expect this session will become a unique forum that not only provides the physical understanding of bioinspired materials, but also offers physical insights to advance the design of future bioinspired systems for broad applications by addressing the current scientific and technological challenges.
Organizers: Kyoo-Chul (Kenneth) Park (Northwestern University, email@example.com), Ling Li (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, firstname.lastname@example.org), Sung Hoon Kang (Johns Hopkins University, email@example.com)
Liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) is now being understood as a key biophysical mechanism used by cells. Using LLPS cells create dynamic non-membrane bound droplets of macromolecules (e.g. proteins, RNAs) separated from the surrounding cytoplasm with tunable and variable material properties. How LLPS is controlled in space and time remains elusive and understanding requires a combined framework of biology and physics. From the biology perspective, it is critical to understand how mesoscale material properties of droplets arise from and are selected for in evolution at the levels of individual molecules. From the physics perspective, new non-equilibrium physical modeling is required to understand these states of active matter that are ubiquitous but variable in cells. This focus session will bring together soft matter physicists, biophysicists and biologists on this important problem to promote interdisciplinary exchange.
Organizers: Amy Gladfelter (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, firstname.lastname@example.org), Daphne Klotsa (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, email@example.com)
Suspensions of swimming micro-organisms are a paradigmatic model of a system driven out of equilibrium, that has attracted wide interest in recent years from both experimentalists and theoreticians. Understanding their properties is in fact a key problem in the physical and biological sciences, not only because they can be exploited to address conceptual questions regarding general characteristic features of out-of-equilibrium systems, but also because of their potential technological application, particularly for improving the design of artificial nanoscale carriers. This proposed session aims at providing an overview of the state-of-the-art of both theoretical and experimental research on micro-swimmers' suspensions. The focus will be in particular on the development of micro-swimmers' models, on the study of their hydrodynamic flow fields and interactions and on their relation to enhanced diffusive phenomena in active matter systems. We believe that this outline can be of exceptional interests for the membership of GSOFT and related units, as it will build a comprehensive framework whereby identifying potential new challenges that can pave the way for further advancement in the field.
Organizers: Andrea Cairoli (Imperial College, London, firstname.lastname@example.org), Kiyoshi Kanazawa (Institute of Innovative Research, Tokyo Institute of Technology, email@example.com), Tomohiko G. Sano (Ritsumeikan University, Shiga Japan, firstname.lastname@example.org)
One of the important and current challenges in non-equilibrium statistical mechanics is to uncover the underpinnings of organization occurring in highly non-equilibrium conditions. Such enquiry is crucial in many contexts, including biophysics, and nanoscale materials science engineering. This proposed focus session will bring together researchers studying self assembly and organization in highly dynamic non-equilibrium conditions. Apart from appealing to more conventional driven self assembly applications, we anticipate that this focus session will be of interest to researchers studying organization in active matter systems, systems driven by external fields, driven chiral fluids, and even non-equilibrium morphological transformations such as those occurring in assemblies of actin or microtubules driven by molecular motors. The focus session can help bring together researcher working on these diverse areas and identify common physical principles.
Organizers: Arnold J. T. M. Mathijssen (Stanford University, email@example.com), Suriyanarayanan Vaikuntanathan (University of Chicago, firstname.lastname@example.org)
Active and driven biopolymer networks, such as networks of cytoskeleton proteins, have been intensely investigated over the past decade due to their promise for designing smart materials and understanding cell mechanics. These materials continuously alter their mechanical properties by varying the structural properties and interactions of the comprising biopolymers. Non-equilibrium activity can be driven by external triggers such as light, salt, temperature, or magnetic or electric fields. Activity can also be internally driven via molecular motors. This session will bring together studies on a wide-range of non-equilibrium biopolymer networks to elucidate the functional design principles of driven soft matter, as well as the time-dependent structural and rheological properties of these non-equilibrium networks. Advances in modulating and characterizing driven networks will also be discussed.
Organizers: Rae Robertson-Anderson (University of San Diego, email@example.com), Jennifer L. Ross (University of Massachussetts, Amherst, firstname.lastname@example.org)
Gels, nonfluid networks of particles or polymers that are pervaded by fluid, appear ubiquitously within soft matter in practical applications as well as in living biological systems. The mechanical properties of gels are intermediate between those of fluids and solids, and depend sensitively on the structure of the gel constituents across multiple length scales. This focus session invites experimental, theoretical, and computational studies of the rheological properties of gels, including chemical and physical gels, hydrogels, colloidal gels, and biological gels, with particular interest and emphasis on connecting structural properties to flow properties. Contributions examining the effect of non-equilibrium activity (driven by molecular motors or by active particles) on gel mechanics are encouraged.
Organizers: Emanuela del Gado (Georgetown University, email@example.com), Jacinta Conrad (University of Houston, firstname.lastname@example.org)
The success of Network Science as a discipline is often attributed to two factors. The first fact is the universal language allowing it to represent diverse complex systems, ranging from brain to the Internet, as networks and graphs. The second is a series of recent technological advances allowing for efficient collection and sharing of large amounts of data behind complex systems. The tremendous growth of Network Science would not be sustained, however, without network-theoretic results offering rigorous tools for modeling of both complex systems and dynamics processes taking place on them. This focus session on network theory will feature a wide array of topics including statistical mechanics of networks, graph theory, nonlinear dynamics on and of networks as well as resilience and control. The session will stimulate the discussion between the domain experts studying specific complex systems and theorists working on theoretical and computational aspects of network science.
Organizers: Maksim Kitsak (Northeastern University, email@example.com), Albert-László Barabási (Northeastern University, firstname.lastname@example.org)
From foil balloons to parade floats, inflatable furniture to beach balls and party balloons, inflatable structures are ubiquitous and often mundane objects with surprisingly rich mechanical behavior that challenges our understanding of the nonlinear coupling between geometry and mechanics of low dimensional objects. Balloons adopt complex shapes when inflated, fold and crease when pocked and may burst in multiple pieces. As such, balloons are used as model systems for studies on fracture, fragmentation, wrinkling, and even phase transitions. These structures find applications in engineering e.g. airbags, weather balloons and even soft-robots, for they are lightweight, easily deployable and often inexpensive. Similarly, encapsulating membranes are ubiquitous in biology, where their mechanics in large deformation often plays a functional role (e.g. pollen desiccation). We are seeking submissions that focus on the theoretical and experimental investigation of the behavior of membranes and balloons. We are particularly interested in exploring the role of geometry, frustration and nonlinearities in these systems.
Organizer: P.T. Brun (Princeton University, email@example.com)
Many structures in nature and engineering are assembled from discrete building blocks, thereby exhibiting new or enhanced functionalities as compared to their continuum counterparts. Examples include bridge trusses, fold patterns in fans and coffee filters, fish scales, and nacre. More broadly, discreteness also arises naturally in the study of elasticity and deformation, whether in computational models, experimental structures, or architectural designs. In mathematics, significant fundamental leaps have occurred in the past few decades in translating concepts from differential geometry into the discrete setting. These advances in discrete differential geometry (DDG) have both contributed to, and benefited from, a burgeoning activity in computer graphics aimed at geometrically exact descriptions in physics-based algorithms. The simulation of slender structures is particularly well-suited to this framework given the primary role of the underlying geometry. These developments in DDG and computational geometry have been slow to permeate into the physics and mechanics communities, but recent successful cases have highlighted the tremendous potential for predictive modeling tools. Conversely, ongoing activity in the soft matter community (metamaterials, slender elastic rods, kirigami, shells) is providing new challenges that may push DDG and computer graphics into new areas. This session seeks to, for the first time, bring together the triangle of communities: nonlinear physics/mechanics, computational graphics/geometry, and DDG. This effort will be the first of its kind at the APS March meeting. We particularly wish to highlight the application to real physical systems of techniques originally developed for computer graphics, but also welcome contributions in all areas of discrete mechanics and geometry, broadly interpreted. Topics of interest include discrete representations of surfaces and geometric quantities, variational integrators, geometric flows, splines and isogeometric analysis, tension field theory, pseudo-rigid bodies, and other reduced models of thin structures, as well as the mechanics of gridshells, truss networks, fabrics, nets, frames, folds, and linkages. The session will stimulate discussions and collaborations between kindred communities of applied geometers in physics and computer graphics.
Organizers: James Hanna (Virginia Tech, firstname.lastname@example.org), Pedro Reis (EPFL, email@example.com)
Recently, there has been impressive experimental and theoretical progress concerning the dynamical properties of noise-driven systems that are far-from-equilibrium. For example, researchers are now able to directly construct stationary, non-zero probability current densities in biophysical systems such as beating flagella. Such measurements provide direct evidence of detailed balance violation, an essential feature in the functioning of many non-equilibrium systems. At the same time, there is substantial theoretical effort to understand fluctuation properties in such systems by proposing new quantitative approaches to characterize breaking of detailed balance. This session is targeted to both experimentalists and theorists from a range of traditional fields spanning biophysics, climate modeling, and condensed matter physics, for whom it will be stimulating to explore the common set of emerging experimental techniques and analytical tools for understanding the noisy dynamics of far-from-equilibrium systems.
Organizer: Stephen Teitsworth (Duke University, firstname.lastname@example.org)
Fluid-structure and granular-structure interactions occur across many length scales within synthetic and biological systems. Fundamental problems that couple fluids within and around deformable bodies have direct relevance to pattern formation, the growth of soft tissues, the emergence of geometric nonlinearities, morphable structures, and fluid transport. Similarly, the physics of elastic structures within granular and fragile matter have important biomechanical connections to plant root growth, ectoparasite feeding, and burrowing animals. Recent research in this area has explored extremely deformable solids interacting with granular materials, the interactions of nontrivial fluids with flexible membranes, and the behavior of a fluid within a swollen elastomer. These research trends have highlighted the importance of understanding the roles of the elastic material and the slender structure in these coupled interactions with fluids and granular matter. This session aims to bring together researchers from diverse backgrounds in structural mechanics, granular physics, fluid mechanics, materials science, soft matter physics, and biomechanics, to open new areas of interdisciplinary research.
Organizer: Douglas P. Holmes (Boston University, email@example.com)
“Everyone Loves a Buckling Problem” (Budiansky & Hutchinson, 1979), nevertheless, following excitement in 50s to 80s the problem of understanding when structures formed from thin elastic shells loose stability, buckle and collapse remained quite dormant for 30 years. Today, exploiting breakthroughs in computation and experiment together with the unprecedented understanding of fully nonlinear dynamical systems we are equipped better than ever to address the subtle issues surrounding the loss of stability in thin elastic systems and buckling. As a result, the problem is experiencing a renaissance where new material and methods are leverage to develop contemporary approaches to tackle the classical problem of predicting when and how thin shell structures buckle and collapse.
Organizers: Shmuel M. Rubenstein (Harvard University, Shmuel@seas.harvard.edu), Tobias M. Schneider (EPFL, firstname.lastname@example.org)
Living organisms are non-equilibrium systems that span an enormous range of scales. Statistical physics governs the nature of the emergent phenomena observed in these complex systems. In macroscopic ecology, one observes approximate power law scaling with predictable relationships between the exponents. At the microscopic level, the notion of phases and transitions between them provide novel insights on the common properties of proteins, the molecular machines of life. This focus session highlights this rich subject and the power of statistical physics in understanding life across scales.
Organizer: Marek Cieplak (Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, email@example.com)
The field of mechanical metamaterials aims at the development and understanding of materials that get their mechanical properties from their geometries, rather than solely from their chemistry. Thanks to the advent of advanced fabrication and computational techniques, the field has seen an explosion of activities. Particularly exciting directions include the creation of materials with novel and extreme mechanical properties (i.e. very light and very stiff), programmable, shape changing and advanced signaling materials, where often nonlinearities play a crucial role. Lying at the cusp between physics, engineering, and mathematics, this session aims at bringing together researchers from diverse backgrounds to forge new interdisciplinary connections.
Organizers: Sung Hoon Kang (Johns Hopkins University, firstname.lastname@example.org), Bas Overvelde (AMOLF, B.Overvelde@amolf.nl)
Liquids, ubiquitous on earth, are prototypical disordered condensed matter. Its very existence is remarkable, thanks to the delicate balance between interparticle potential and entropy. The phase behaviors of liquids and liquid-like matter, especially when driven out of equilibrium by extreme conditions, are exceptionally rich. Accordingly, the physics of liquids have attracted much attention in the recent decades. In addition, numerous soft and biological materials of amazing far-from-equilibrium complexity seem to share many intriguing features of liquids. Therefore, quantitative descriptions of the structure and dynamics of liquids and liquid-like matter will likely impact a wide range of disciplines in physics, chemistry, and materials science and engineering. This session will focus on the forefront of the research on liquids, from fresh theoretical treatments and computations to cutting-edge experimental techniques.
Organizer: Yang Zhang (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, email@example.com)
Machine learning approaches offer promising methods to accelerate the discovery of new materials with tunable properties. This session will focus on machine learning approaches to design novel bulk metallic glasses and other glass-forming materials. To date, the materials community has tested the glass-forming ability of only an extremely small fraction of the possible metal alloys. Coupling high-throughput fabrication and characterization techniques with machine learning approaches will enable researchers to explore an unprecedentedly large composition space of metallic glasses. This focus session seeks abstracts from interdisciplinary researchers in physics, materials science and engineering covering experimental and computational design of new glass-formers with optimized properties, structure-property relationships, and high-throughput fabrication and characterization techniques. We believe that this focus session will catalyze new collaborations aimed at the discovery of new metallic glasses.
Organizers: Corey S. O'Hern (Yale University, firstname.lastname@example.org), Jan Schroers (Yale University, email@example.com)
This focus session builds on recent progress on pattern formation in granular systems, ranging from planetary surface and subsurface to active soft matter. The flow may result in erosive dynamics of sedimentary materials, and/or growth and redistribution of the medium as a result of nutrients in the flow, or a result of capillary and conductivity gradients. We seek abstracts from researchers from a diverse community including those who participate this summer in the GRC: Flow and Transport in Permeable Media - Across Scales: From Pore-Scale Physics to Geologic-Scale Processes, and GRC: Granular Matter – The Interdisciplinary Nature of Particulate Systems, which draws an international audience to New England. This session can bring focus to this area in which there has been substantial progress on fundamental modeling and experiments focused on an individual component of the rich fluid driven pattern formation in these systems.
Organizer: Arshad Kudrolli (Clark University, firstname.lastname@example.org)
Recently, deviations from naïve expectations of equilibrium behavior have been observed in many classical and quantum systems, including many-body localized phases, non-Gibbs phases, intermittent dynamics (long-time excursions away from equilibrium), and experiments in dipolar cold atoms. But the relationships (if any) among these different systems remain unclear and are actively being examined by several groups. This focus session seeks to attract contributions from all of these fields (and more) to expose and, hopefully, clarify these relationships.
Organizers: David K. Campbell (Boston University, email@example.com), Sergeh Flach (Center for Theoretical Physics of Complex Systems, firstname.lastname@example.org)
Physical manipulation of single biomolecules, including DNA, RNA, proteins, and macromolecular filaments, have found many powerful applications in studying biophysical properties and processes. Techniques include optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers, atomic force microscope cantilevers, and hydrodynamic flow. These techniques allow controlled forces to be applied to single molecules and/or for forces acting on the molecules to be measured. In addition, molecules can be displaced in a controlled manner and/or their displacements can be measured. Applications have included studies that have shed light on fundamentals of biopolymer mechanics, protein-DNA interactions, protein and RNA folding, and molecular motor function. This focus session will explore traditional techniques and applications of single molecule manipulation techniques and developments of new approaches and applications.
Organizer: Doug Smith (University of California, San Diego, email@example.com)
Information needed by all cells to survive and proliferate is encoded in the sequence of nucleotides in genomic DNA. In eukaryotes, DNA is packaged into chromatin – a complex multi-scale structure which ensures that all chromosomes into the tight of the cell nucleus. However, DNA in this packaged state must either remain accessible to various regulatory proteins such as transcription factors (which turn genes on and off) or be made accessible rapidly and robustly in response to various challenges facing the cell throughout its life cycle. This dilemma of packaging and accessibility has recently attracted a lot of attention from the biological physics community, with methods from polymer physics, statistical mechanics, and condensed matter physics being applied to understand DNA folding and dynamics, protein-DNA interactions, and chromatin structure and function. This session will focus on the latest developments in this rapidly advancing field, bringing together experimental and theoretical scientists in the fields of chromatin, DNA, and protein-DNA recognition.
Organizers: Alexandre V. Morozov (Rutgers University), Gary D. Stormo (Washington University, firstname.lastname@example.org)
No description given
Proteins and nucleic acids play important roles in many biological processes. Understanding and predicting their structures, dynamics, interactions, and energetics are highly valuable to uncover the mechanisms of these processes and to design therapeutic interventions. The physics community is continuing to provide key contributions to this field. We deliberately give a general title for the session to attract broad audience (DBIO, chemical physics, computational physics, and optics). The first invited speaker, Mike Gilson, is a world-renowned scientist studying the physical basis of molecular interactions (e.g., free energy and entropy calculations) and computational drug design. The second invited speaker, Gavin King, is a young investigator and an NSF CAREER Award recipient, who develops advanced single-molecule AFM techniques to study membrane proteins. Their talks will be interesting to DBIO and physicists on physical chemistry, computational chemistry and optics. Both co-organizers are women, and will strongly encourage minorities and women to give contributed talks.
Organizers: Xiaoqin Zou (University of Missouri), Aihua Xie (Oklahoma State University, email@example.com)
This focus session will explore the physics of cytoskeletal systems on length scales ranging from the molecular to the cellular, and across disciplines, bringing together approaches ranging from structural biology to measurements of network dynamics to modeling in order to reveal the physical mechanisms of cellular behavior. We will focus on work that connects molecular level features with higher-level properties of cytoskeletal filaments and their assemblies. Our emphasis will include how such properties enable and control cellular and tissue function, and how stresses and other signals are transmitted and sensed in such a dynamic, stochastic environment.
Organizer: Valentine Megan (University of California, Santa Barbara)
This session will convene outstanding speakers, who will talk about biomaterials seen from a physics point of view, with specific attention to the structure, the function, and the relationship between structure and function, in both natural biomaterials and synthetic materials inspired by nature. Buehler and Kats are a theorist and an experimentalist, both are excellent speakers and world leaders in biomaterials.
Organizer: Pupa Gilbert (University of Wisconsin-Madison)
The session will highlight how synthetic biological engineering of cells and molecules can provide research tools for biological physics, to interrogate biological systems at all scales by delivering precise stimuli, obtaining quantitative readouts, performing parameter scans, thereby discovering quantitative principles of biological organization and function.
Organizer: Gábor Balázsi (Stony Brook University)
The universe of bacteria and other microbes that live in concert with their host or environment is often called the microbiome. Interest in the physical properties of microbiome is as old as the field of microbiology itself. Back in the 1600s, Antoine van Leeuwenhoek first discovered that microorganisms living on and in his body, vary a lot in their shape and sizes, suggesting the first hint of a complex microbiome. Recent advances in imaging and sequencing technologies are producing a revolution in the microbiome field. This revolution presents enormous opportunities for physics and physicists to advance this incredibly exciting field by revealing functional relationships connecting the biogeography and organizational principles of microbiome to the health or wellbeing of its hosts or environment.
Organizer: Yang-Yu Liu (Harvard)
No description given
Intracellular transport describes the continued and dynamic movement of materials in cells. Importantly, dysfunctions in this process are linked to diseases including neurodegeneration. Intracellular transport cannot be accomplished by passive diffusion alone. Instead, cells utilize protein machines (molecular motors) to actively transport materials along the cytoskeleton. This Focus Session will bring together experimentalists and theorists working to dissect the physical principles of transport, particularly under complex conditions such as those that occur in cells.
Organizer: Jing Xu (University of California, Merced, firstname.lastname@example.org)
Information theory and machine learning methods have been used in science largely for classification purposes. Here we will explore different attempts to use them to predict dynamics of complex (often biological) systems from data, and to gain physical understanding of the system in the process.
Organizer: David Schwab (CUNY)
Electric fields are surprisingly ubiquitous in cellular systems from membrane potentials of firing neurons to native electric fields of healing wounds. Many biological techniques controlling cell behavior such as brain stimulation and electroporation utilize electric fields. While the biological processes are very distinct from neuroscience to wound healing, this focus session will concentrate on the unifying physics of cell responses to electric fields from molecular scales to cellular scales, including tissue scale responses to electric fields.
Organizer: Wolfgang Losert (University of Maryland)
Building on the robophysics Focus Sessions at APS MM in 2016, 2017, and 2018 (see Aguilar et al, Rep. Prog. Physics, 2016), we propose a Robophysics FS in 2019 and an accompanying Tutorial Session. Robots are moving from the factory floor and into our lives (autonomous cars, homecare assistants, search and rescue devices, etc). However, despite the fascinating questions such future “living systems” pose for scientists, the study of such systems has been dominated by engineers and computer scientists. We propose that interaction of researchers studying dynamical systems, soft materials, and living systems can help discover principles that will allow physical robotic devices to interact with the real world in qualitatively different ways than they do now. And we propose that a Focus session at the APS March meeting that brings together leaders in this emerging area (most of whom are not physicists) will demonstrate the need for a physics of robotics and reveal interesting problems at the interface of nonlinear dynamics, soft matter, control, and biology.
Organizers: Chen Li (Johns Hopkins University), Daniel I. Goldman (Georgia Tech, email@example.com)
It is well known that oscillations and the formation of spatial patterns are intimately connected – for example, similar activator-inhibitor networks can drive both behaviors, and oscillations can drive traveling waves that lead to intricate patterns. This session will bring together talks describing new research on oscillatory pattern formation in organisms ranging from bacteria to zebrafish. It will thereby introduce March Meeting attendees to some of the latest findings on a variety of important model systems, while also allowing them to see emerging commonalities between the pattern formation mechanisms in these different examples.
Organizer: David Lubensky (University of Michigan)
Recent advances in imaging and sequencing methodologies allow for the first time the visualization and quantification of the events driving embryonic development. These experimental and theoretical studies are revealing novel physical principles of regulation of biological systems and they will be the focus of the Session.
Organizer: Stefano di Talia (Duke University)
The field of Morphogenesis lies at the intersection between physics, biology and engineering. Morphological shapes of biological tissues and structures have inspired a plethora of scientists throughout the history, especially since the D’Arcy Wentworth Thompson’s influential book titled “On Growth and Form” was published a century ago. Many recent activities have focused on understanding how biology has devised elaborated strategies for regulating pattern formation and mechanical forces in both space and time. Morphogenesis has also inspired scientists to design shape-programmable stimuli-responsive matter. This session aims at bringing together researchers from diverse backgrounds to forge new interdisciplinary connections.
Organizer: Andrej Kosmrlj (Princeton)
No description given
This session is designed to showcase recent advances in the application of physical methods and in the formulation of physical principles to understanding brain structure and dynamics. It will also highlight some of the outstanding problems whose solutions will be advanced by application of physics. Areas covered include: brain’s electrical activity oscillations and wave propagation, eigenmodes in sleep, natural stimuli-related activity, bifurcation theory of brain activity, control of brain spreading activity in seizures and migraines, and implications for clinical applications. We expect that the opportunities explored in this session will stimulate more inputs from physicists to this interdisciplinary field.
Organizers: Mukesh Dhamala (Georgia State Universty), Peter Robinson (The University of Sydney)
The dynamics of populations represent an exciting frontier for physicists to understand the emergent structure that results from the interactions of individuals within a population or species within a community. This focus session will bring together experimental and theoretical approaches to develop a unified understanding of the evolutionary and ecological dynamics of populations.
Organizer: Jeff Gore (MIT)
The focus of this session will be on quantifying evolutionary dynamics via state of the art experiments and modeling. The era of sequencing enabled new precision measurements, and now we have abundant data on the evolution of microbes and viruses. These organisms have large population sizes and short generation times, both of which allow us to probe fundamentals of evolutionary biology. However, many unknowns remain. In the case of pathogens, there are important open questions regarding the evolution of drug resistance. Also, the relationship between rates of genomic evolution and organismal adaptation is at best uncertain. We do not know what sets the size of the genomes, what determines the numbers of genes in genomes, what is the role of horizontal gene transfer on the genome evolution, what determines the temporal dynamics etc. Our goal is to show some of the recent precision measurements and theoretical predictions in evolutionary biology.
Organizers: Marija Vucelia (University of Virginia), Ariel Amir (Harvard, firstname.lastname@example.org)
Living systems organize in large scale structures and dynamics that are essential to life. Synthetic or bio-inspired active matter emulates similar behavior with model building blocks. This session focuses on the recent progress to understand, control and design self-organization in biology and active matter. It aims at bridging the biophysics and soft matter community and provides a broader scope to our understanding of non-equilibrium systems.
Organizer: Jeremie Palacci (University of California, San Diego)
The aim of the symposium is to bring together world-leading experts on structure and reactivity of gas phase clusters and to discuss future directions in this field. The role of gas phase clusters as model systems for related condensed phase systems will be emphasized.
Organizers: Joachim Sauer and Knut Asmis
This symposium will bring together experts in the field of molecular magnetism to define current challenges in this field, examine conditions under which their behaviors transform from classical to quantum, and determine how coherent spin effects arise and break down. In addition to possible qubit and quantum-sensor design, talks aimed at rigorous understanding of field-photon- or electron- induced control or interrogation of such systems in chemical, physical and aqueous environs are encouraged as are talks that investigate the role of spin physics in similar naturally occurring functional inorganic molecules.
Organizers: Bess Vlaisavljevich (University of South Dakota), Mark Pederson (BES), Michael Berman (Air Force Office of Scientific Research), Evelyn M Goldfield, National Science Foundation (NSF)
The aim of the symposium is to bring together world experts on state-of-the-art computational and experimental techniques to discuss (i) the key role played by the interplay of experiment and theory in spectroscopy gas-phase studies, (ii) the target accuracy and challenges to be aced by computations when aiming at reproducing and predicting experimental results, and (iii) future directions to further reduce the gap between theory and experiment.
Organizers: Cristina Puzzarini (University of Bologna), Julien Bloino (Scuola Normale Superiore)
The accurate simulation of many electronic phenomena in the condensed phase requires tools with predictive power beyond that of DFT. This Focus Session will bring together researchers working on such techniques for systems with explicit periodicity. Represented approaches will include those based on many-electron wavefunctions, Green's functions, quantum Monte Carlo, and embedding formalisms. Emphasis will be placed on a comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of various methods and collaborative opportunities to advance the field of condensed-phase electronic structure.
Organizers: Timothy C. Berkelbach (University of Chicago), Garnet Chan (Caltech)
Organic and/or inorganic hierarchical systems with multiple temporal and spatial scales display novel functionalities and find applications in catalysis, optoelectronics, and sensors. This symposium will bring together experts working in the field of synthesis, characterization, and modeling of hierarchical systems to discuss recent advances and future research directions.
Organizers: Neeraj Rai (Mississippi State University) and Dongxia Liu (University of Maryland)
Atomic, molecular, and optical systems offer new settings to explore localization - both in disordered settings with analogs to solid state systems, as well as in novel geometries such as quasiperiodic lattices. Intriguing transport, entanglement, and many-body effects have been realized as new probes are being constructed. For example, progress in building atomic gas microscopes now allows detailed microscopic studies of localization in time evolution. The control and isolation of AMO systems also make them particularly appealing for exploring concepts surrounding many-body localization, in which there is an interplay between disorder and interactions.
Organizer: Dominik Schneble, (Stony Brook University, Dominik.Schneble@stonybrook.edu)
Topological quantum phases of electrons such as quantum Hall states, topological insulators and topological semimetals have been major topics in condensed matter physics with important implications for metrology, low-dissipation electronics, quantum computing and other device applications. Developing implementations of such topological phases in atomic/molecular and optical/photonic systems has attracted great interest recently. Building on tool sets ranging from synthetic gauge fields and spin-orbit coupling to nanophotonics and metamaterials, the studies of atomic and photonic topological matter and states bring many exciting opportunities to engineer novel light-matter interaction and topological states, and realize new functionalities for applications in quantum information/simulation and photonics.
Organizer: Mikael C. Rechtsman (Penn State, email@example.com)
By combining mechanical, optical, and atomic elements, one creates systems with novel properties which can be used for answering fundamental questions and developing new technology. New ideas continue to emerge about coupling systems in ways which make the most of their characteristics (such as the long coherence times of photons, or the large coupling matrix elements in mechanical systems). These hybrid systems are becoming useful for metrology, and continue to erode the dividing line between the microscopic and the macroscopic. Interfacing AMO systems with solid state/materials/nano systems open possibilities to realize novel states of matter or new types of experimental probes in both systems.
Organizer: Jonathan Simon (University of Chicago, firstname.lastname@example.org)
High precision quantum many-body platforms provide new environments for studying out-of-equilibrium physics. The possibility to control the range of interactions, from short-range for cold atoms to long-range for molecules, Rydberg gases, and trapped ions, allow one for instance to study speed limits on the spread of correlations after a quantum quench. Because of the combination of long coherence times and highly accurate tools such as quantum gas microscopy available in these systems, non-trivial dynamics can be observed in up to 10th order correlators, and even entanglement can be measured. Integrability and disorder can be tuned and initial state preparation is highly controlled. Thus one can explore evolution from excited states as well as under periodic driving, allowing access to a range of problems ranging from the dynamics of many-body localized systems to time crystals and other Floquet phenomena. This session will bridge AMO, condensed matter, quantum information, and non-equilibrium statistical mechanics.
Organizer: Mukund Vengalattore (Cornell University, email@example.com)
We now have hundreds of experimental quantum simulators worldwide running on a tremendous variety of architectures including ultracold atoms in optical lattices, Rydberg gases, trapped ions, ultracold molecules, exciton-polariton systems, coupled cavity arrays, and Josephson-Junction-based superconducting nano-electro-mechanical systems. Such simulators have led to significant advances in our understanding of quantum many-body phases and near-equilibrium phenomena. Beyond work done so far in quantum optics and other contexts, these simulators offer us a new opportunity to address deep unanswered questions in open quantum systems far from equilibrium. At the same time, quantum simulation methods on classical computers, including matrix product density operators and quantum trajectories-based methods, have opened up the opportunity to explore specific dynamical open system models both within and outside the Markov and secular approximations. Such approaches will be key to nanodevice design in quantum environments for which the reservoir is too small to be Markovian and/or secular, as well as environments intentionally designed to be nonthermal and very far from such approximations. They will also allow us to explore new regimes of quantum mechanics, quantum measurement, and quantum technology.
Organizer: Lincoln Carr (Colorado School of Mines, firstname.lastname@example.org)
The experimental and computational study of quantum systems consisting of a relatively small number of particles enjoys a renewed interest in the broad community thanks to the recent theoretical and experimental developments in achieving unprecedented accuracy for few-particle systems. This joint experimental and theoretical endeavor brought us to the world of many “small effects”, most of them previously neglected or approximated in dubious ways. A complete understanding of all these subtle effects makes it necessary to massively go beyond the common approximations used to describe atoms and molecules and opens up directions for building new physical theories even beyond the Standard Model. The purpose of this focus session is to survey recent activity in the field that is related to the following areas: Precision spectroscopy of small atoms and molecules; Molecular quantum mechanics beyond the Born–Oppenheimer approximation; Non-adiabatic models for molecular systems; Relativistic and quantum electrodynamics computations for molecules; High-level quantum chemistry methods (e.g. explicitly correlated approaches);Structure and stability of systems containing exotic particles (e.g. positrons, muons);Trions, biexcitons, and larger excitonic complexes; Quantum dots; Few-body quantum scattering; Ultracold few-body systems.
Organizer: Sergiy Bubin (Nazarbayev University, email@example.com)
There has been explosive growth in the study of topological insulators in which the combined effects of the spin-orbit coupling and time-reversal symmetry yield a bulk energy gap with novel gapless surface states that are robust against scattering. Moreover, the field has expanded in scope to include topological phases more complex materials such as Kondo systems, magnetic materials, and complex heterostructures capable of harboring exotic topologically nontrivial state of quantum matter. The observation of theoretical predictions depends greatly on sample quality and there remain significant challenges in identifying and synthesizing the underlying materials that have properties amenable to the study of the bulk, surface and interface states of interest. This topic will focus on fundamental advances in the synthesis, characterization and modeling of candidate topological materials in various forms including single crystals, exfoliated and epitaxial thin films and heterostructures, and nanowires and nanoribbons, in addition to theoretical studies that illuminate the synthesis effort and identify new candidate materials. Of equal interest is the characterization of these samples using structural, transport, magnetic, optical, scanning probe, photoemission and other spectroscopic techniques, and related theoretical efforts aimed at modeling various properties both in the surface/interface and in the bulk.
Organizers: Lu Li (University of Michigan, firstname.lastname@example.org), Joseph Checkelsky (MIT, email@example.com)
The field of topological semimetals has developed dramatically over the past few years. After the initial prediction and discovery of Dirac and Weyl semimetals – materials whose low energy excitations can be described by the Dirac or Weyl equation of high-energy physics – the field has now expanded to include new low-energy excitations not possible in a high-energy setting. Semimetals with different degeneracy at crossing points or lines have been predicted. Transport theories and effects have been predicted and proposed in order to measure a small subset of the topological characteristics of the semimetals (such as Chern numbers). Furthermore, semimetals whose existence is guaranteed by filling constraints derived from the presence of certain orbitals at certain points in specific lattices have also been mentioned in the literature.
Distinct from conventional low carrier density systems, Dirac, Weyl and other semimetals are expected to possess exotic properties due to the nontrivial topologies of their electronic wave functions. A subset of the novel properties predicted include Berry phase contributions to transport properties, chiral anomaly, quantized nonlinear transport under circularly polarized light, protected Fermi arc surface states, suppressed scattering, optical control of topology, landau level spectroscopy, superconductivity, and non-local transport. While promising candidate materials exist for many but certainly not all of the topological semimetals, many phenomena have yet to be clearly resolved.
This focus topic aims to explore Dirac, Weyl and other new semimetals and the novel phenomena associated with them. We solicit contributions on predictions, new materials synthesis and characterization, new phenomena in topological semimetals, as well as studies on both conventional and unconventional semimetals, both in the bulk and on the surfaces of samples that accentuate the non-trivial topological character of the new semimetals.
Organizers: Dmytro Pesin (University of Utah, firstname.lastname@example.org), Guang Bian (University of Missouri, email@example.com), Jin Hu (University of Arkansas, firstname.lastname@example.org)
Topological superconductors are superconductors characterized by topological invariants associated with the band structure of the Bogoliubov quasiparticles. They have been a focus of significant experimental and theoretical efforts in view of their relevance to fundamental physical and mathematical concepts, and potential for quantum computation. Along with the search for bulk materials candidates, there has been much recent progress in studies of atomically thin films, artificially engineered structures, and the surfaces of bulk materials. This Focus Topic will cover topological superconductivity and the closely related non-centrosymmetric superconductivity in new experimental settings involving transition metal dichalcogenides, topological insulators, Weyl semi-metals, FeSe-based systems, graphene, engineered heterostructures, semiconducting nanowires, atomic chains and Shiba states, junctions with ferromagnets, quantum Hall states, and driven systems and Floquet states. This Focus Topic will also cover the new understanding of bulk materials candidates such as Sr2RuO4 and the emerging opportunities in platforms such as twisted bilayers of 2D materials, and advances in strategies for quantum information processing using topological superconductivity.
Organizers: Arun Bansil (Northeastern University, email@example.com), Ashvin Vishwanath (Harvard, firstname.lastname@example.org ), Vidya Madhaven (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)
Impurities and native defects profoundly affect the electronic and optical properties of semiconductor materials. Impurity incorporation is often a necessary step for tuning the electrical properties in semiconductors. Defects control carrier concentration, mobility, lifetime, and recombination; they are also responsible for the mass-transport processes involved in the migration, diffusion, and precipitation of impurities and host atoms. Controlling the presence of impurities and defects is a critical factor in semiconductor engineering, and has enabled the remarkable development of Si-based electronics, GaN based blue light-emitting diodes and lasers, semiconducting oxides for transparent conducting displays, and the promise of next-generation sensors and computing based on defects like the NV center in diamond. The fundamental understanding, characterization and control of defects and impurities will also be essential for developing new devices, such as those based on novel wide-band gap semiconductors, spintronic materials, and low dimensional structures. The physics of dopants and defects in semiconductors, from the bulk to the nanoscale and including surfaces and interfaces, is the subject of this focus topic. Abstracts on experimental, computational and theoretical investigations are solicited in areas of interest that include: the electronic, structural, optical, and magnetic properties of impurities and defects in elemental and compound semiconductors; wide band-gap materials such as diamond, aluminum nitride, and gallium oxide; single-photon emitters including NV centers and their analogues; defects in two-dimensional materials including phosphorene, h-BN, transition metal dichalcogenides, 2D ferromagnets, and MXenes; and the emerging organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cell materials are of interest. Abstracts on specific materials challenges involving defects, e.g., in processing, characterization, property determination, including imaging and various new nanoscale probes are also welcomed.
Organizers: Cyrus Dreyer (Rutgers University, email@example.com), Lee Bassett (University of Pennsylvania, firstname.lastname@example.org), Anderson Janotti (University of Delaware, email@example.com)
Complex oxides can exhibit a rich variety of order parameters, such as polarization, strain, charge and orbital magnetization degrees of freedom. Their ordering phenomena give rise to a vast range of functional properties including ferroelectricity, polarity, pyroelectricity, electrocaloricity, magnetoelectricity, multiferroicity, metal-insulator transitions and defect- related properties, which are the principal topics of interest for this symposium. Understanding and harnessing these functional properties in view of new applications is a major challenge in our field:
This focus topic therefore welcomes contributions on fundamental aspects of structure, ordering and functionality in complex oxides as well as on emerging avenues to controlling polarization, magnetism and electronic properties via strain and/or strain gradients and/or defects. Contributions on breakthroughs and progress in the theory, synthesis, characterization, and device implementations in these and other related topics are highly encouraged.
Organizers: Julia Mundy (Harvard, firstname.lastname@example.org), John Heron (University of Michigan, email@example.com), Beth Nowadnick (New Jersey Institute of Technology, firstname.lastname@example.org)
Organometallic halide perovskites have recently caused a surge of interest in their optoelectronic properties and applications due to their remarkable performance as semiconductor light absorbers in solar cells. As a new class of semiconductors, these materials are interesting not only because of the hybrid organic-inorganic structure, but also for their superior properties such as high defect tolerance, strong optical absorption, low recombination rate, ambipolar charge transport, and tunable physical properties. Rapid progress has been made in the demonstration of photoelectronic perovskite devices for photovoltaics, light emission, lasing and photodetection. Possible structural asymmetry, due to lattice distortion by organic cations, gives rise to ferroelectricity and large Rashba spin-orbit coupling in the hybrid perovskites, which provides more functionality to devices with electric field control and/or utilization of spin. However, the underlying physics of many unusual properties remains elusive, such as the hysteretic current-voltage relationships, low recombination rate, long spin lifetime and ferroelectric behavior. The practical use of these hybrid perovskite calls for more in-depth understanding of their fundamental properties and versatile strategies to tune and optimize the materials properties. In this Focus Topic we expect contributions on broadly-defined experimental and modeling studies of the optical, electronic, structural and defect properties of the organometallic halide perovskites. Advancements in materials engineering and the development of practical applications are also encouraged.
Organizers: Joseph Berry (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Joe.Berry@nrel.gov ), Sarah Li (University of Utah, email@example.com)
Fe-based superconductors (FeSCs) continue to fascinate the materials and condensed matter physics communities as we move into a new decade of their study. While the field started from the iron pnictides, new efforts have increasingly been directed towards the iron chalcogenides. Recent advances in the synthesis and control of the FeSCs are giving us renewed hope for even higher superconducting transition temperatures. At the same time, considerable progress is being made in the understanding of these materials, including the bad-metal normal state and the degree of electron-electron correlations, the order and excitations of the various electronic degrees of freedom (spin, orbital, charge and nematic), the role of quantum criticality in the phase diagram, and the amplitude and structure of the multi-orbital superconducting pairing. In addition, there is progress in understanding the unifying principles that may optimize superconductivity of the FeSCs and connect them with other unconventional superconductors such as the cuprates, heavy fermions and organic charge-transfer salts. Finally, the FeSCs may connect to broader issues on superconductivity, such as BCS-BEC crossover and topological superconductivity. This focus topic will cover the pertinent recent developments in the materials growth, experimental measurements and theoretical understandings, and survey the potential for discovering new superconducting systems with still higher transition temperatures.
Organizers: Adam Kaminski (Ames Lab Iowa State University, firstname.lastname@example.org), Stephen Wilson (University of California, Santa Barbera, email@example.com), Steven Johnston (University of Tennessee, Knoxville, firstname.lastname@example.org)
Reduced dimensionality and confinement often lead to magnetic states and spin behaviors that are markedly different from those observed in bulk materials. This Focus Topic explores advances in magnetic nanostructures, the novel properties that arise in magnetic materials at the nanoscale, and the advanced characterization tools required for understanding these properties. Magnetic nanostructures of interest include thin films, multilayers, superlattices, nanoparticles, nanowires, nanorings, 3D nanostructures, nanocomposite materials, hybrid nanostructures, magnetic point contacts, and self-assembled, as well as patterned, magnetic arrays. Sessions will include talks on the methods used to synthesize such nanostructures, the variety of materials used, and the latest original theoretical, experimental, and technological advances. Synthesis and characterization techniques that demonstrate nano- or atomic-scale control of properties will be featured, such as: novel deposition and lithography methods (including focused electron/ion beam induced deposition); electron microscopy (Lorentz and holographic imaging); advances in synchrotron and neutron scattering techniques; and novel near field imaging techniques including NV center-based imaging. Phenomena and properties of interest include magnetization dynamics and reversal, singular magnetic textures, magnonics, magnetic interactions, magnetic quantum confinement, spin tunneling and spin crossover, proximity and structural disorder effects, strain effects, microwave resonance and microwave assisted reversal, magnetic anisotropy, and thermal and quantum fluctuations.
Organizers: Stéphane Mangin (Universite de Lorraine, email@example.com), Dustin Gilbert (University of Tennessee, Knoxville, firstname.lastname@example.org), Justin Shaw (NIST, email@example.com)
The emergence of novel states of matter, arising from the intricate coupling of electronic and lattice degrees of freedom, is a unique feature in strongly correlated electron systems. This Focus Topic explores the nature of such ordered states observed in bulk compounds of transition metal oxides; it will provide a forum for discussion of recent developments in theory, simulation, synthesis, and characterization, with the aim of covering basic aspects and identifying future key directions in bulk oxides. Of special interest are the ways in which the spin, lattice, charge, and orbital degrees of freedom cooperate, compete, and/or reconstruct in complex transition metal oxides to produce novel phenomena as well as novel magnetic states, often with exotic topological properties that can arise from the interplay of spin-orbit coupling and Coulomb interactions. Associated with this complexity is a tendency for new forms of order, such as the formation of stripes, ferroic states, spin-orbit entangled states or phase separation. An additional focus of this session is on how competing interactions result in spatial correlations over multiple length scales, giving rise to enhanced electronic and magnetic susceptibilities and responses to external stimuli.
Organizers: Nandini Trivedi (Ohio State University, firstname.lastname@example.org), Vesna Mitrovic (Brown University, email@example.com), Gregory Fiete (University of Texas, firstname.lastname@example.org)
The intricate interactions between electronic and structural degrees of freedom make magnetism in complex oxides an intriguing field of research. Specifically, in thin films and heterostructures of magnetic oxides emergent phenomena can arise from the competition and cooperation of strain, lattice symmetry, orientation, size, and interfacial effects. These tuning factors support a wide variety of interfacial phenomena such as charge transfer, orbital reconstruction, proximity effects, and modifications to local atomic structure. Novel electronic and magnetic ground states at oxide interfaces thus generates exciting new prospects both for discovery of fundamental physics and the development of technological applications. This Focus Topic is dedicated to progress in the knowledge, methodologies, and tools required to advance the field of magnetism in oxide thin films, heterostructures, superlattices, and nanostructures. Synthesis, characterization, theory, and novel device physics are emphasized. Specific areas of interest include, but are not limited to, growth of oxide thin films and heterostructures, control of their magnetic properties and ordering, magnetotransport, magnetic behavior in strongly correlated systems, strong spin-orbit coupling effects, dilute magnetism, magnetoelectric phenomena, coupling of atomic and magnetic structures, and recent developments in theoretical prediction and materials-by-design approaches. Advances in experimental techniques to probe and image magnetic order and transitions in complex oxide thin films (including scanning probes, optical, electron, neutron, and synchrotron-based techniques) are also emphasized. Note that overlap exists with other DMP and GMAG focus topic sessions. As a rule of thumb, if magnetism plays a key role in the investigation, then the talk is appropriate for this focus topic.
Organizers: James Rondinelli (Northwestern University, email@example.com), Roopali Kukreja (University of California, Davis, firstname.lastname@example.org), Tiffany Kaspar (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Tiffany.Kaspar@pnnl.gov)
The generation, manipulation, and detection of spin currents in metals and magnetic heterostructures are of great interest for fundamental science and applications. Understanding of fundamental spin-dependent transport physics, accompanied by progress in materials and nanoscale engineering, has already had a dramatic impact on technology. Discoveries like giant and tunneling magnetoresistance have moved to applications, and uses of more recent discoveries, including magneto-thermal effects, spin-transfer torque, spin-Hall effects, and chiral domain walls, are imminent. This Focus Topic aims to capture experimental and theoretical developments in spin transport and magnetization dynamics in mostly metal-based systems, such as ultra-thin films, heterostructures, lateral nanostructures, perpendicular nanopillars, and tunnel junctions. In particular, contributions describing new results in the following areas are solicited: (i) Interplay between spin currents and magnetization dynamics in magnetic nanostructures; spin-transfer, spin-pumping and related phenomena, including current-induced magnetization dynamics in heterostructures and domain wall motion in magnetic wires; (ii) Theoretical predictions and/or experimental discovery of half-metallic band structures, both in bulk solids and at the surfaces of thin films; Spin transport and magnetization dynamics in magnetic nanostructures (e.g., TMR, CPP-GMR and lateral spin valve structures) based on half-metallic materials; (iii) Manifestations of spin-orbit interactions including, but not limited to field-like and damping-like torques on magnetic films and nanostructures, the spin-Hall, inverse spin-Hall, and anomalous Hall effects; microscopic mechanisms of magnetization damping; (iv) Electric field control of magnetic properties (e.g., anisotropy, phase transitions, etc.), including but not limited to hybrid metal/oxide structures, piezoelectric layers coupled to ferromagnetic films, and electrolyte/ferromagnetic systems; (v) Ultrafast magnetization response to (and reversal by) intense laser pulses; magnetization dynamics at elevated temperatures, and thermally-assisted magnetization reversal; (vi) Thermoelectric spin phenomena such as giant magneto-thermopower and Peltier effects, spin-Seebeck effects, spin and anomalous Nernst and Ettingshausen effects (spin caloritronics); (vii) Thermal gradient and/or RF-driven magnonic magnetization dynamics in nanostructures, including spin wave excitation, propagation, and detection; Interactions between electronic spin current and magnon propagations in thin-film and device structures; and (viii) General considerations of spin angular momentum, energy, and entropy flow, conservation laws, and Onsager reciprocity relations.
Organizers: Fengyuan Yang (Ohio State University, email@example.com), Joo-Von Kim (Université Paris Saclay, firstname.lastname@example.org), Luqiao Liu (MIT, email@example.com)
The field of spin-dependent phenomena in semiconductors addresses a wide range of new effects, materials systems [e.g., III-V and II-VI heterostructures, group-IV materials including Si, Ge, SiC, diamond and graphene, transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) and other 2D semiconductors, and oxide semiconductors] and new structures (e.g., quantum dots and nanocrystals, nanowires and carbon nanotubes, hybrid ferromagnetic/semiconductor structures, and van der Waals heterojunctions). This Focus Topic solicits contributions aimed at understanding spin-dependent processes in magnetic and non-magnetic structures incorporating semiconducting materials. Topics include: (i) electrical and optical spin injection and detection, spin pumping, spin Hall effects, spin-dependent topological effects, spin filtering, spin dynamics and scattering; (ii) growth and electrical, optical and magnetic properties of magnetic semiconductors, nanocomposites, and hybrid ferromagnet-semiconductor structures, including quantum dots, and nanowires; (iii) spin and valley dynamics in bulk (e.g. Si, Ge) and monolayer semiconductors (e.g. TMDs); (iv) spin-dependent electronic and thermal transport effects, and dynamical effects in semiconductors with or without spin-orbit interactions, including proximity effects in heterostructures; (v) manipulation, detection, and entanglement of electronic and nuclear spins in quantum systems, including dots, impurities and point defects (e.g., NV centers in diamond); (vi) magneto-resistance, magneto-electroluminescence, and resonance-driven spin pumping in organic semiconductors; (vii) spin-dependent devices and device proposals involving semiconductors; and (viii) spin-dependent properties (e.g. quantum anomalous Hall effects) in topological insulators and topological insulator/ferromagnet hybrid structures.
Organizers: Chris Palmstrom (University of California, Santa Barbara, firstname.lastname@example.org), Gregory Fuchs (Cornell University, email@example.com), Shufeng Zhang (University of Arizona, firstname.lastname@example.org)
Simple antiferromagnets on bipartite lattices have well-understood ground states, elementary excitations, thermodynamic phases and phase transitions. At the forefront of current research are frustrated magnets where competing interactions suppress magnetic order and may lead to qualitatively new behavior. Frustrated magnets may realize novel quantum-disordered ground states with fractionalized excitations akin to those found in one-dimensional antiferromagnets, but with a number of novel features. They are often characterized by significant spin-orbit and crystal-field interactions as well as by varying degrees of spatial anisotropy. This Focus Topic solicits abstracts for presentations that explore both theoretical and experimental aspects of the field. The themes to be represented are united by geometrical frustration: valence-bond solids, spin nematics, and other exotic ordered states; spin ices, quantum spin liquids, order-from-disorder, magnetoelastic coupling, and novel field-induced behavior; and synthesis and modeling of new materials with magnetic frustration. Also of interest are the effects of strongly fluctuating spins on properties beyond magnetism, including charge, spin, and energy transport, as well as ferroelectricity.
Organizers: Marcelo Jaime (Los Alamos National Laboratory, email@example.com), Philippe Corboz (Universiteit van Amsterdam, firstname.lastname@example.org), Adam Aczel (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, email@example.com)
A strong spin-orbit interaction combined with inversion symmetry breaking often gives rise to chiral magnetism, including the formation of topologically non-trivial spin textures (e.g., skyrmions and chiral domain walls) and the asymmetric propagation of spin waves. The novel properties of static and dynamic chiral magnetism offer many exciting opportunities in the fields of nanomagnetism and spintronics. This Focus Topic will address the most recent developments in the field of chiral magnetism. It will cover (bulk/thin-film) material synthesis and characterization, numerical and analytical modeling, and device design and measurement, combining experimental and theoretical aspects of the field. Specific areas of interest include, but are not limited to: magnetic skyrmions (and more complex topological solitons) in bulk materials, multilayer systems and thin films chiral magnetic domain walls, chiral magnetization dynamics, spin Hall effects, spin-orbit torques, the physics and control of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions (DMI), DMI-induced non-reciprocity in spin waves, interfacial magnetism, topological transport phenomena, emergent electrodynamics, and novel device architectures based on non-trivial topological spin textures and dynamics. Advanced techniques to study chiral magnetism, such as spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy, magneto-optical Kerr effect microscopy, Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy, spin-polarized low energy electron microscopy, NV center microscopy, Lorentz transmission electron microscopy, and synchrotron-based techniques will also be included. The key future directions of the field will be identified. It is expected that this Focus Topic will not only promote the fundamental understanding of static and dynamic chiral magnetism, but also facilitate progress towards innovative technological applications.
Organizers: Olle Heinonen (Argonne National Laboratory, firstname.lastname@example.org), Claudia Mewes (University of Alabama, email@example.com), Karin Everschor-Sitte (Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, firstname.lastname@example.org)
The possibility of reduction to zero-dimensionality allows exploration of novel size and quantum effects in magnetic systems. While single spins can be isolated in semiconducting devices or by scanning probe techniques, the molecular approach introduces synthetic flexibility, providing the possibility of engineering the magnetic quantum response of a spin system. The development and study of molecular and low-dimensional magnetic systems continues to provide a fertile testing ground to explore complex magnetic behavior and new challenges for the development of experimental techniques and theoretical models. New frontiers are also represented by the possibility of combining low-dimensional magnetic systems in hybrid architectures and to study the interplay between spins and functional nanostructures. This Focus Topic solicits abstracts that explore inorganic and organic molecule-based, as well as solid state, systems, and both theoretical and experimental aspects of the field. Topics of interest include: magnetism in zero, one, and two dimensions (e.g., quantum dots, single-molecule magnets, spin chains, interfaces between molecular spins and functional surfaces), spin-orbit and super-exchange couplings, quantum critical low-dimensional spin systems, topological excitations, quantum tunneling of magnetization, coherent spin dynamics and quantum correlation (e.g. entanglement), and novel field-induced behavior.
Organizers: Jonathan Friedman (Amherst College, email@example.com ), Vivian Zapf (Los Alamos National Laboratory, firstname.lastname@example.org), Cristian Batista (University of Tennessee, Knoxville, email@example.com)
Materials with 5d and 4d orbitals occupy a unique niche due to the competition between the crystal-field, spin-orbit coupling and Coulomb repulsion energy scales, as well as exchange interactions. These materials pose a challenge for observing and calculating behavior in the strongly spin-orbit coupled regime due to competing spin, charge and lattice degrees of freedom. As a consequence of the intricate interplay between various interactions, 5d and 4d materials exhibit intriguing properties that have been observed in experiment and theory, including unexpected insulating behavior, topological spin liquids and unconventional superconductivity.
This focus topic covers experimental and theoretical work on compounds containing 5d/4d elements, e.g. iridium, osmium, rhodium or ruthenium and others. These materials can be found for a variety of two- and three-dimensional lattices with varying degree of frustration and correlations. Emergent phases include magnetism, topological behavior, spin liquids, superconductivity and metal-to-insulator transitions. The topic is not limited to oxides.
Organizers: Gang Cao (University of Colorado, Gang.Cao@Colorado.edu), Jan Musfeldt (The University of Tennessee, firstname.lastname@example.org)
The interest in two dimensional (2D) materials is rapidly spreading across all scientific and engineering disciplines due to their exceptional chemical, mechanical, magnetic, optical and electrical properties, which not only provide a platform to investigate fundamental physical phenomena but also promise solutions to the most relevant technological challenges. 2D materials find their immediate application in field effect transistors, gas sensors, bio-detectors, mechanical resonators, optical modulators and energy harvesting devices with superior performances that have already been demonstrated in prototype devices. Furthermore, recent progress has also shown that heterostructuring, doping, intercalation and phase engineering in these 2D materials will enable unprecedented structures and functionalities with new opportunities and great potentials. However, the true impact will only be made if the initial breakthroughs are transformed into commercial technologies. A major challenge towards the commercialization of 2D materials is the scalable and controllable production of high quality layers in a cost-effective way. So far, the best quality samples of 2D materials have been obtained through micromechanical exfoliation of naturally occurring single crystals. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is the most widely used bottom-up technique to grow large area 2D-materials. Several top-down approaches have also been adopted based on bulk liquid phase chemical and electrochemical exfoliation. Each type of method possesses its unique strength to enable material for specific research or application needs, whereas on the other hand has its own challenge to be addressed.
This focus topic will cover:
Organizers: Jing Kong (MIT, email@example.com), Jiaqiang Yang (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, firstname.lastname@example.org), Sina Najmael (Argonne National Laboratory, email@example.com), Shawna Hollen (University of New Hampshire, firstname.lastname@example.org)
Research exploring 2D semiconductors and their heterostructures is rapidly expanding to include a wide variety of layered material systems with diverse properties, including strong many-body interactions, strong spin-orbit coupling effects, spin- and valley-dependent physics, and topological physics. This Focus Topic will cover experimental and theoretical/computational work related to 2D semiconductors and their heterostructures, including large bandgap materials such as the chalcogenides (e.g. MoS2, WSe2, GaSe and ReSe), phosphorene and h-BN, small bandgap materials with possible topological properties (such as silicene, germanene, stanene and Bi2Se3), and magnetic semiconductors (e.g. CrGeTe3, CrI3, Mn:MoS2). We encourage abstracts discussing important topics related to monolayers, few-layers and heterostructures, including quantum transport properties, mobility engineering, spin- and valley-dependent phenomena, 2D exciton physics, the effect of defect engineering on optical and electronic properties, understanding the role of the dielectric environment, and many-body effects, in addition to magnetic, thermal and mechanical properties.
Organizers: Nathan Guisinger (Argonne National Laboratory, email@example.com), Qing Hua Wang (Arizona State University, firstname.lastname@example.org), Yong Chen (Purdue University, email@example.com)
With the rapid progress in the research on 2D materials, including graphene and other layered material systems, a wide variety of properties and functionalities have emerged that have broad scientific and technological significance. The rational design of devices consisting of 2D materials calls for improved understanding of their intrinsic and extrinsic properties that are critical to the device functionality, as well as their integration with other device components. The development of these 2D materials based devices also requires solutions to problems associated with material functionalization, structural fabrication, and device characterization. This Focus Topic will cover experimental and theoretical/computational work related to devices based on the growing array of 2D materials that exhibit a wide variety of behaviors – such as metallic, semiconducting, insulating, magnetic, ferroelectric, superconducting, and various strongly correlated electronic phenomena. These 2D materials include (but are not limited to) graphene, transition-metal chalcogenides (e.g., MoS2, WSe2, NbSe2, TaS2, FeSe etc.), silicene, germanane, stanene, phosphorene, magnets (e.g. CrI3, Fe3GeTe2, Cr2Ge2Te6, etc.), ferroelectrics (e.g. SnTe, In2Se3, etc.), topological insulators (e.g., Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3, etc.), layered oxides (e.g., BSCCO), and large band gap materials such as h-BN.
We invite contributions on topics including: (i) the functionalization, fabrication, measurements, and modeling of devices based on the unique properties of 2D materials in the single- or multi-layered forms as well as their heterostructures; (ii) proof-of-principle studies focusing on the electronic, magnetic, dielectric, optical, mechanical, thermal, and chemical behaviors of 2D materials relevant for device applications; and (iii) interfacial, environmental, and system-based properties and behaviors inherent to the application of 2D materials in future devices.
Organizers: John Schaibley (University of Arizona, firstname.lastname@example.org), Shiwi Wu (Fudan, email@example.com), Weida Wu (Rutgers University, firstname.lastname@example.org)
In the last few years, there has been an explosion of activities in the field of two-dimensional materials beyond graphene. Much of the effort focused on the rich optoelectronic properties of semiconducting compounds like the transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) or black phosphorus. Some of the TMDs display an insulating to metal transition upon gating which seems to be driven by electronic correlations. Others are metallic (or semi-metallic) over the entire temperature range while presenting gapped electronic ground states, such as superconductivity or charge-density waves. Semi-metallic WTe2 and orthorhombic MoTe2 (or ZrTe5) are claimed to possess unique topological features in their electronic band structures apparently leading to anomalous transport properties and perhaps also to an unconventional superconducting state. For monolayer NbSe2 superconductivity was shown to survive the application of extremely high magnetic fields when applied along its planar direction, while electronic correlations are likely to be important for the high superconducting transition temperature observed in monolayer FeSe. Surprisingly, the suppression of inter-planar coupling was claimed to enhance the charge-density wave transition in monolayers of TMDs. But with the exception of bilayer graphene, and probably also the quantum Hall-effect seen in transition metal dichalcogenides, InSe or black-phosphorus, to date there are relatively few examples of mono- or few-layered compounds, for which correlations seem to play a fundamental role.
This focus topic will concentrate on two-dimensional materials displaying gate induced phase-transitions or ground states with either non-trivial topologies or broken-symmetries for which new and relevant physical phenomena is likely to emerge.
Organizers: Aaron Bostwick (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, email@example.com), Cory Dean (Columbia University, firstname.lastname@example.org), Kin Fai Mak (Cornell University, email@example.com)
The development of predictive computational simulation for accelerating the discovery and rational design of functional materials is a challenge of great contemporary interest. Advances in algorithms and predictive power of computational techniques are playing a fundamental role in the discovery of novel functional materials, with successful examples in catalysis, batteries, and photoelectrochemistry. High-throughput computation and materials databases have recently enabled rapid screening of both molecules and solid-state compounds with multiple properties and functionalities. This focus topic will cover research efforts to accelerate materials discovery and/or development by building the fundamental knowledge base and applying novel data driven approaches to design materials with specific and targeted functional properties from first principles.
Abstracts are solicited in the areas of interest that include computational materials design and discovery; development of accessible and sustainable data infrastructure; development of new data analytic tools and statistical algorithms; advanced simulations of material properties in conjunction with new device functionality; data uncertainty quantification; advances in predictive modeling that leverage machine learning and data mining; algorithms for global structure and property optimizations; and computational modeling of materials synthesis. The technical applications include but are not limited to electronic and optoelectronic materials, magnetic materials and spintronics, energy conversion and storage materials (thermoelectrics, batteries, fuel cells, photocatalysts, photovoltaics, ferroelectrics), metallic alloys, and two-dimensional materials. Contributions that feature strong connection to experiments are of special interest.
Organizers: Tim Mueller (Johns Hopkins University, firstname.lastname@example.org), Shyue Ping Ong (University of California, San Diego, email@example.com), Artem Oganov (SSkolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, Russia, firstname.lastname@example.org)
Recent experimental, theoretical and computational advances have enabled the design and realization of nanostructured materials with novel, complex and often unusual electromagnetic properties unattainable in natural materials. Such nanostructures and metamaterials provide unique opportunities to manipulate electromagnetic radiation over a broad range of frequencies, from the ultraviolet and visible to terahertz and microwave. This focus topic will highlight recent progress in the physical understanding, design, fabrication, and applications of these man-made materials. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to: nanophotonics, plasmonics, near-field and quantum optics, opto-fluidics, energy harvesting, and the emerging interface of condensed matter and materials physics with the biological, chemical and neuro sciences.
Organizers: Xiaobo Yin (University of Colorado, email@example.com ), Nanfang Yu (Columbia University, firstname.lastname@example.org), Natalia Litchinitser (Duke University, email@example.com)
Understanding and controlling how heat, charge, and energy flow at the nanoscale is critical for realizing the potential of nanomaterials in next generation device technologies. Of particular challenge, and opportunity, is understanding how elementary excitations such as phonons, electrons, holes, excitons, and plasmons interact with each other and are influenced by interfaces, confinement, and quantum effects in nanostructures. This is particularly true for heterogeneous nanoscale materials and interfaces with varying degrees of electronic and phononic couplings, and distinct thermal and electrical impedances. Structural components used in hybrid nanostructures can be made of semiconductors, metals, molecules, liquids, etc.
Contributions are solicited in areas that reflect recent advances in experimental measurement, theory, and modeling of transport mechanisms in nanoscale materials and interfaces. Specific topics of interest include, but are not limited to:
Organizers: Tom Harris (Sandia National Lab, firstname.lastname@example.org), Han Htoon (Los Alamos National Laboratory, email@example.com), Shixiong Zhang (Indiana University Bloomington, firstname.lastname@example.org)
When complex oxides are prepared as thin films and heterostructures, they exhibit additional properties that cannot be realized in the constituent materials alone. These novel properties arise as a result of interfacial charge transfer, exchange coupling, orbital reconstructions, proximity effects, dimensionality as well as the mechanical and electric boundary conditions. Emergent electronic and magnetic states at oxide interfaces raise exciting prospects for new fundamental physics and technological applications. This Focus Topic is dedicated to progress in the fabrication, methodologies, and knowledge in the field of complex oxide thin films, heterostructures, superlattices, and nanostructures. Synthesis, characterization, theory, and novel device physics are emphasized. Specific areas of interest include, but are not limited to, growth of oxide thin films and heterostructures (with special emphasis on new materials/interfaces), control of properties (magnetic, electronic, ordering, interfacial superconductivity, multiferroicity, magnetotransport, spin-orbit coupling), and developments in theoretical prediction and materials-by-design approaches. Advances in techniques to probe and image electronic, structural and magnetic states at heterostructure interfaces are also emphasized. Note that overlap exists with other DMP and GMAG focus sessions. As a rule of thumb, if complex oxides and their heterostructures are at the core of the investigation, then the talk is appropriate for this focus topic.
Organizers: Ryan Comes (Auburn University, email@example.com), Hanghui Chen (NYU, firstname.lastname@example.org), Roman Engel-Herbert (Penn State, email@example.com)
The processing of information using classical means is at a cross-roads. Although classical computing continues to find innovative means to improve computational power, the traditional approach of scaling down transistor-based semiconductor technologies is nearly at its physical limits. A new class of information processing that explores possibilities beyond classical computing architectures is now underway with particular emphasis on quantum phenomena that complement existing computing architectures. To that end, new materials and physical properties are needed along with close collaborations among physicists, materials scientists, and electrical engineers. This Focus Topic intersects the materials discovery, devices physics, and nanoscale structure communities for quantum information processing (QIP) within the common theme of understanding the underlying physical interactions in materials for quantum information processing. Given that this topic remains exploratory in nature, contributions are solicited broadly among the following topics:
Organizers: James Rondinelli (Northwestern University, firstname.lastname@example.org), Joseph J. Heremans (Argonne National Laboratory, email@example.com)
Organic molecular solids are a challenging materials class since numerous “weak” interactions, all of comparable strength, control structures and functional properties. The promise of high performance optoelectronics, designer sensors, electrode work function control, and bioelectronic devices make the payoff for addressing this challenge high. Moreover, there is great scientific value in addressing complex systems with hierarchical interactions and a strong tension between localized and delocalized phenomenon such as found in organic molecular solids. This Focus Topic will bring together Surface Scientists to report and discuss new experimental and theoretical/computational results aimed at the basic physics underpinning this material class. Research of interest includes the structure, properties, electron dynamics, and applications of organic adsorbates, monolayer assemblies, thin films, crystals and nanostructures.
Organizer: Christopher Boehme (University of Utah, firstname.lastname@example.org)
This session will focus on the behavior of matter under extreme conditions of pressure, strain, radiation, temperature, deformations and point impact. Such research is not only of fundamental scientific importance, but it also has numerous applications, e.g. for the synthesis of materials exhibiting novel electronic and magnetic states of matter as well as unique stoichiometries and crystal structures, which require the development of new chemical bonding rules. It is relevant for the design of technologically important materials such as spacecraft and armor, as well as for explosives and in nuclear explosions. Extreme conditions drive the processes that occur in the Earth’s core and the interior of other planets.
Theoretical method developments coupled with the spectacular increases in computer power have made it possible to more accurately probe the electronic structure and properties of matter, as well as pushed the boundaries of the time and length scales that can be achieved in simulations. At the same time, new experimental techniques are being developed to interrogate matter under extreme conditions at state-of-the-art facilities worldwide. Because these experiments can be expensive to perform and the results difficult to analyze, synergy between experiment and theory is essential to advance understanding.
This focus session, which will consist of invited and contributed talks, will bring together theoreticians and experimentalists from a broad range of fields including physics, chemistry, materials science, as well as earth and planetary science and astrophysics to discuss areas that include, but are not limited to, the following:
Organizers: Eva Zurek (University at Buffalo, email@example.com), Yanming Ma (State Key Lab of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, China, firstname.lastname@example.org), Maosheng Miao (California State University Northridge, email@example.com), Bianca Haberl (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, firstname.lastname@example.org), Jon Eggert (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, email@example.com), Paul Loubeyre (Commissariat a l’Energie Atomique (CEA), France, firstname.lastname@example.org)
16.01.02 Building the bridge to exascale: applications and opportunities for materials, chemistry, and biology (DCOMP, DAMOP, DBIO, DCP, DCMP, DMP, DPOLY) [same as 01.01.25, 04.01.22, 05.01.06, 06.01.09, 11.01.07, 36.16.01.02]
High Performance Computing (HPC) plays a critical role in modern scientific discovery through a merging of simulation, modeling and experimental data analysis. HPC facilities around the world, are preparing to field exascale HPC systems, capable of performing 1018 floating-point operations per second, in the next several years. For example, the U.S. National Strategic Computing Initiative (NSCI) is currently underway with the goal of fielding an exascale computer in 2021. The advent of exascale computing brings with it both tremendous opportunity for scientific discovery as well as challenges for harnessing this technology in scientific applications.
This focus session will bring together researchers with experience in the effective utilization of high-performance data and compute infrastructure, including supercomputers, communication networks, and data resources to achieve breakthrough scientific results. This includes researchers at experimental facilities such as light and neutron sources with extreme data-science requirements, including machine-learning approaches, and researchers in computational materials, computational chemistry and computational biophysics with experience in large scale simulations. Also of interest software development efforts which will enable novel science on pre-exascale and emerging architectures.
We intend for this session to highlight strong examples of the state-of- the-art in computational science today leveraging large, national-scale infrastructure. The talks will highlight science results as well as opportunities and challenges in using energy-efficient, pre-exascale HPC systems to solve problems in materials, chemistry and biophysics.
Organizers: Jack C. Wells (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, email@example.com), Jack R. Deslippe (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, firstname.lastname@example.org), Nichols A. Romero (Argonne National Laboratory, email@example.com)
Electron-phonon interactions play a central role in many phenomena, most classically the resistivity of metals at ordinary temperatures, and are important for electrical and thermal conductivity of thermoelectrics, the temperature dependence of the optical band gaps of semiconductors, and other phenomena such as phonon drag. This focus topic covers electron-phonon interactions emphasizing fundamental physics, direct computation, first principles and phenomenological theory, optical and phonon spectroscopy and novel effects in nanostructures, nanodevices, 2D materials, and bulk materials. This focus topic also includes the emerging area of phononics, in particular manipulating phonon eigenstates, coherent superpositions and non-linearities, for example for logical operations or to manipulate sound or heat in unconventional ways.
Organizers: David J. Singh (University of Missouri, firstname.lastname@example.org), Matthieu Verstraete (Universite de Liege, email@example.com), Ronggui Yang (University of Colorado, firstname.lastname@example.org)
Many properties of functional materials, interfaces, and nano-structures derive from electronic excitations. These processes determine properties such as ionization potential and electron affinity, optical spectra and exciton binding energies, electron-phonon coupling, charge transition levels, and energy level alignment at interfaces. In addition, hot carriers in semiconductors and nanostructures are generated, transition between excited states, transfer energy to the lattice, and recombine with each other. It is necessary to understand these properties from a fundamental point of view and to achieve design of materials with optimal performance for applications e.g., in transistors, light emitting diodes, solar cells, and photoelectrochemical cells.
A proper description of electronic excitations requires theoretical approaches that go beyond ground state density functional theory (DFT). In recent years, Green’s function based many-body perturbation theory methods like RPA, GW, and BSE have been adopted by a rapidly growing community of researchers in the field of computational materials physics. These have now become the de facto standard for the description of excited electronic states in solids and their surfaces. Ehrenfest dynamics and surface-hopping schemes, e.g. based on time-dependent DFT, are used to describe coupled electron-ion dynamics as the origin of interesting physics in photocatalysis, surface chemical reactions, scintillators, or radiation shielding.
Advances in high performance computing and scalable implementations in several popular electronic structure packages enable further progress. Sophisticated calculations are accessible for many users and feasible for large, complex systems with up to few hundred atoms. These methods are increasingly applied to interpret experiments, such as spectroscopies and femtosecond pump-probe measurements, and to computationally design functional materials, interfaces, and nano-structures.
This focus topic is dedicated to recent advances in many-body perturbation theory and electronion dynamics methods for electronic excitations: challenges, scalable implementations in electronic structure codes, and applications to functional materials, interfaces, molecules, and nano-structures. It aims to attract researchers working on the nexus of electronic and optical properties of materials, hot electron dynamics, and device physics.
Organizers: André Schleife (Department of Materials Science and Engineering, UIUC, email@example.com), Serdar Ogut (Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, firstname.lastname@example.org), Yuan Ping (Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, UCSC, email@example.com), Sahar Sharifzadeh (Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Boston University, firstname.lastname@example.org)
The last few years have seen many exciting applications of machine learning (ML) to various fields in Physics. Pioneering works in the past three years have now paved the way to applications to condensed matter physics. For example, “Machine learning phases of matter” by Carrasquilla and Melko, recently published in Nat. Phys., was the first of “supervised” neural network ML applications for detecting phase transitions in condensed matter models, or “Solving the quantum many-body problem with artificial neural networks” by Carleo and Troyer, published recently in Science, was the first to use neural networks to find a better starting point in variational methods for solving quantum many-body systems. Since then the community has grown to wide ranging topics including topological phases, out-of-equilibrium phases, quantum state tomography, quantum error correction, connections to tensor networks etc. These methods also have direct applications to benchmarking quantum simulators of Hubbard, Heisenberg, and other many-body models.
Organizers: Eun-Ah Kim (Cornell University, email@example.com), Lei Wang (Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, firstname.lastname@example.org), Lincoln Carr (Colorado School of Mines, email@example.com), Miles Stoudenmire (Center for Computational Quantum Physics, Flatiron Institute, firstname.lastname@example.org)
Precise understanding of strongly correlated materials and models is a major goal of modern physics. Achieving this understanding normally requires four complementary ingredients and thus four distinct directions of research: (i) conducting experiments that aim at producing highly accurate data, (ii) developing effective theories addressing the relevant degrees of freedom and/or emergent phenomena characteristic of a given phase of matter; (iii) solving simplified strongly correlated microscopic models either numerically or analytically, and (iv) cross-validating theoretical predictions against empirical data qualitatively and, ultimately, quantitatively. The last decade has seen breakthroughs made in all the four directions. An impressive progress has been achieved, and more is anticipated, where models and methods from many-body physics can be tested with precision, and where entirely new systems are realized that still await their accurate description. For example, in the field of ultra-cold atoms it is now feasible to perform analog quantum simulations aiming at experimental realization of key many-body quantum models and engineer novel Hamiltonians. Very recently, highly controllable experimental platforms also started to address fundamental questions about non-equilibrium quantum dynamics, opening the door to new dynamical phases of matter with no equilibrium counterpart. Given this background, the proposal is to organize focus sessions that will bring together researchers who share the goal of achieving controllable theoretical and experimental understanding of phenomena taking place in correlated many-body systems. The key topics of the session(s) may include exactly solvable models and first-principles numeric approaches (such as tensor network and density-matrix renormalization group methods; path-integral, stochastic-series, and diagrammatic Monte Carlo techniques, dynamic cluster approximations, linked-cluster expansions, etc.); effective coarse-grained description of quantum phases and phase transitions; analytical and numerical methods yielding controllable description of topological phases (topological insulators, fractional quantum Hall states and Chern insulators, etc.), and precise experimental studies of strongly correlated bosonic, fermionic, and spin systems (both at and out of equilibrium).
Organizers: Nikolay Prokofiev (University of Massachusetts, Amherst, email@example.com), A. Millis (Columbia University, firstname.lastname@example.org), Z. Hadzibabic (Cambridge University, UK, email@example.com)
16.01.07 Exploring Free Energy Landscapes in Biology and Materials Science with Advanced Algorithms (DCOMP, DPOLY, DBIO, DMP, GSOFT, GSNP) [same as 01.01.26, 02.01.35, 03.01.36, 04.01.23, 36.16.01.07]
Molecular simulations have long held the promise of idealized experimental systems; an atomic-level microscope able to monitor and probe dynamics, thermodynamics and response at small length and timescales. Through appropriate definitions of molecular models and simulation conditions, the same essential toolsets can explore the binding of biomolecules, the stretching of polymers, and the large scale thermodynamics of simple fluids and complex mixtures. A key benefit is the ability to define the system of interest to an almost arbitrary degree of specification, enabling the extraction of essential, generalizable features or more material-specific quantities, and permitting both physical and alchemical methods of investigation. Despite this power, a limitation that must be continually overcome is one of defining appropriate sampling. Relative to experimental systems which may be monitored for days or more, making even relatively slow processes (on the order of seconds) commonplace, atomic-scale simulations are limited to probing systems on the order of microseconds without dedicated supercomputing hardware. These events are essential when attempting to understand binding-unbinding events in drugs with nanomolar equilibrium constants and slow relaxation processes in composite materials or complex fluids. Simulations can be accelerated in one of two ways: (1) through coarse-graining a model into an efficient representation capable of achieving the same large-scale thermodynamic behaviors, or (2) through enhanced sampling methods, which accelerate the occurrence of slow processes to computationally tractable timescales. This focus session seeks contributions from simulators at the cutting edge of method developments which speed up molecular simulations through algorithms rather than hardware, implementing exciting new sampling methods and applying them to diverse problems in biology and materials. In particular, this session is interested in new developments incorporating data analytics and machine learning to augment traditional molecular modeling techniques.
Organizers: Jonathan K. Whitmer (University of Notre Dame, firstname.lastname@example.org), Juan J. de Pablo (University of Chicago, email@example.com)
Statistical physics is one of the foundational theories for describing systems with disorder and limited microscopic knowledge. It is essential for the study of finite temperature properties and behaviors of physical systems and materials. As analytical solutions often are limited in their scope, computer simulations have become increasingly indispensable to advance theoretical studies in these areas. Algorithms and methodologies continuously evolve to unleash the power of modern computers for attaining improved performance and accuracy, and for the study of more complex physical problems. The main focus of this session will be on new methods and capabilities of Monte-Carlo, Molecular-Dynamics and Spin-Dynamics methods and their combinations. This Focus Session aims to provide a platform to bring together researchers from different disciplines to discuss and showcase recent advancements in computational statistical physics, as well as their applications to frontier research problems.
Relevant topics for this Focus Session include (but are not limited to): simulation algorithms or techniques in computational statistical mechanics and their related studies; implementation techniques for modern computer architectures (e.g. GPUs or many-core processors); theoretical studies and discoveries aided or enhanced by computer simulations; applications of computational statistical mechanics to the study of thermodynamics, phase stability and transitions, critical phenomena at equilibrium, disorder driven phenomena, non-equilibrium, or irreversible processes for physical systems such as spin models, solid state systems, polymers and biological systems.
Organizers: Markus Eisenbach (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, firstname.lastname@example.org), Ying Wai Li (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, email@example.com), David P. Landau (University of Georgia, firstname.lastname@example.org)
Modern data acquisition and storage possibilities offer enormous amounts of information that need to be processes and analyzed. The dimension of the parameter space characterizing the data can be very high and sources of the data very diverse. Examples are 3d tomography, social networks, financial transactions, satellite images, climate monitoring, astronomy and internet traffic. This topic group covers the handling of Big Data using tools and concepts mainly coming from Statistical Physics like time series analysis, critical phenomena, complex networks, machine learning and 3d reconstruction which are successfully applied to extract hidden information, establish general scaling laws and predict future evolutions.
Organizers: Hans Hermann (PMMH ESPCI Paris, France, email@example.com), Hernan Makse (Physics, Levich Institute, City College New York, firstname.lastname@example.org), José Soares Andrade Jr. (Dept. de Física, UFC, Fortaleza, Brazil, email@example.com)
Practicing physicists often incorporate powerful computational techniques as key elements in their work, and, additionally, physics graduates often end up working in computational fields. Nevertheless, physics courses often include computational tools only to illustrate the physics, with little discussion of the method behind the tools, the limits to a simulation's reliability, and how utilize massively parallel computers. This session will focus on efforts to incorporate modern computational and data analytics techniques into curricula, and especially how to go beyond a specialty course in Computational Physics. We plan to invite contributions describing efforts originating from computational science groups and contributions describing efforts undertaken in a variety of departments.
Organizers: Rubin Landau (Oregon State University, firstname.lastname@example.org), Scott Lathrop (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, email@example.com)
Recent advances in force fields, algorithm design, data analytics, and large scale parallel machines have stimulated great interest in modeling hard and soft materials and biological systems with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Multimillion-to-billion atom MD simulations with classical force fields trained by ab initio quantum mechanical (QM) simulations can reliably describe charge transfer, bond breaking/bond formation, and chemical reactions in materials under normal and extreme operating conditions. Machine learning approaches are greatly accelerating the development of quantum-mechanically informed force fields for massively parallel MD simulations. Combining coarse grained and atomistic modeling with machine learning methods enable high throughput screening of materials. Accelerated dynamics approaches have enabled MD simulations to reach sufficiently long-time scales to study rare events. Novel task parallel frameworks are emerging for the analysis of peta-to-exascale MD simulations.
Invited and contributed presentations will cover a wide range of topics that include but are not limited to:
Organizers: Rajiv Kalia (University of South California, firstname.lastname@example.org), Roberto Car (Princeton University, email@example.com), Gary S. Grest (Sandia National Laboratory, firstname.lastname@example.org)
This focus topic covers the field of computational modeling at the ab initio level of these complex systems. It includes but is not limited to understanding the need to accurately describe electronic charge transfer and localization in solvated ionic environments, the importance of many-body effects and non-local correlations, the role of polarization in simulations of electrolyte solutions, the electrochemical interface and wet semiconducting surfaces, etc. This focus topic also will be open to research in biophysics and atmospheric sciences, bringing together distant communities working to understand the fundamental physics that governs the behavior of charged ions and surfaces in aqueous environments.
Organizers: Marivi Fernandez-Serra (Stony Brook University, email@example.com), Luana Pedroza (Universidade Federal do ABC, Sao Paolo, BR, firstname.lastname@example.org), Jeffrey Greeley (Purdue University, email@example.com)
There is currently a major push towards the realization of fault-tolerant quantum processors as well as exciting research at the quantum-advantage frontier. This focus session will highlight the technological advances towards these goals that have been achieved by one of its leading technologies: superconducting qubits. Talks will address improvements in a number of areas related to this technology. To improve qubit performance, we consider novel qubits - such as heavy-fluxonium, 0-pi and current-mirror devices - and high-fidelity gates developed and optimized on a variety of superconducting qubit architectures. To improve coherence across multiple qubits and increase the number of qubits in a device, we consider advances in modular architectures, 3D fabricating and integration, and using microwave photons to carry quantum information between processing nodes via waveguides. Talks in this session will include, but aren't limited to, these relevant topics to superconducting qubits.
Organizers: David Mckay, Blake Johnson, Erik Lucero and Jens Koch
Qubits realized in semiconductors continue to make major advances in multiple materials. Spins in electrostatically defined quantum dots in both group-III-V and group-IV semiconductors, in optically-controlled self-assembled quantum dots, and bound to impurities, have all witnessed coherent control with increasing fidelity and progress in the mitigation of decoherence. Recent developments include demonstrations of quantum logic in multiple dots, the analysis of robust methods for reducing charge and hyperfine noise effects, improvements in device development and characterization, and hybridization with superconducting resonators. These developments all indicate strong progress for single and multiple coupled qubits across different semiconducting materials and control methods. This focus session is intended to draw together this progress, with interest in device fabrication, state initialization, read-out, demonstrations of coherent manipulation, and theoretical modeling.
Organizers: Andrea Morello and Thaddeus Ladd
Atoms (neutral and ionic) are natural carriers of quantum information and form the basis for many quantum technologies including digital quantum computers, analog quantum simulators, memory for quantum networks, and quantum metrological standards and sensors. This focus session will highlight various advances across a broad suite of atomic-based quantum technologies.
Organizers: Ivan Deutsch
Hybrid quantum systems consisting of a combination of distinct elements, such as superconducting and semiconducting, allow for the coupling of diverse quantum degrees of freedom, e.g. the microscopic electronic degrees of freedom (charge or spin) and cavity photons in a superconducting microwave resonator. Research in this area opens new opportunities to combine previously disconnected quantum systems such as superconducting, charge, spin, phononic and photonic qubits, and study their functionalities for qubit manipulation, quantum information processing, and quantum simulation.
Organizers: Guido Burkhard and Mark Gyure
As quantum information processors scale up, from 1 to 2 to 5 to (now) 20 or more qubits, noise and errors remain a major challenge. Further progress toward useful quantum computing applications demands new approaches to quantifying error processes, and to eliminating or reducing them. This focus session highlights progress on characterization of physical errors in near-term intermediate quantum technologies, and also on mitigation of errors including both familiar modes (decoherence of individual qubits) and new ones that threaten standard approaches to fault-tolerant error correction (crosstalk, leakage, correlated errors, etc.)
Organizers: Jerry Chow, Seth Merkel, and Robin Blume-Kohout
The maturation of quantum information technologies highlights an opportunity for quantum control solutions to accelerate pathways to useful quantum systems. Quantum control as a focused discipline provides means for both improving system performance in the presence of noise and imperfections, and synthesizing exotic quantum states and dynamics of interest. The confluence of emerging capabilities in controlled coherent dynamics and reservoir engineering with advances in machine learning is now positioning quantum control as an enabler of a new class of exploratory physics investigations. This session will bring together theorists and experimentalists working across different quantum control areas, assess recent progress and outstanding challenges, and identify areas where control can open new capabilities in fundamental quantum physics.
Organizers: Michael Beircuk and Lorenza Viola
The field of quantum information has sometimes been called “applied quantum foundations”. This why work in the foundations of quantum mechanics finds its natural home in the Division of Quantum Information. Quantum foundations research includes all fundamental aspects of quantum entanglement, Bell inequalities, contextuality results like the Kochen-Specker theorem, complementarity, quantum measurement theory, various conundrums like Wigner’s friend, delayed choice experiments, and the like, as well as conceptual work in quantum interpretations such as Everett’s many-world interpretation and QBism.
Organizers: Chris Fuchs, Matt Leifer and Rob Spekkens
Two important developments in quantum computing in recent years have made this a privileged time in the history of the field: first is computers being built with 50-100 qubits and high fidelity gates (so called NISQ computers), and the second is public access to such machines. Both of these milestones have made quantum software more important than ever.
Good software is at the heart of putting these machines to work. It allows the computation to efficiently exploit the limited resources of NISQ computers, accelerates finding useful applications for them, allows users to explore techniques for error mitigation and correction, and can reduce user error through better programming constructs and feedback. Finally, software is the entry point for cloud access quantum computers, opening up the field to thousands of new users who bring new insights and expertise.
This focus session is intended to bring together researchers working on all aspects of the quantum software stack: quantum programming languages, compilers and optimizers, software for characterizing errors and finding error correction codes, classical simulation of quantum computation, and libraries for quantum algorithms and applications. Topics may also take the form of identifying gaps in existing software stacks or possible interoperability among them. Of particular interest is to identify ways that better software can accelerate the pace towards practical quantum computation by offering greater efficiency.
Organizers: Raphael Pooser and Fred Chong and Ali Javadi
Topological Stabilization of Memory and Computation: Encoding quantum information topologically is a powerful strategy for achieving fault-tolerant quantum computing platforms. This includes both active approaches, as utilized in topological codes, and passive approaches, achieved by manifesting topological phases of matter. Recent progress in the field has proposed synthesizing these two approaches, uncovered deep relations between them, and advanced novel methods of processing their topologically encoded quantum information. There has also been a steady exploration of new codes/phases and their properties, such as fracton phases, which can realize self-correcting quantum memory. Combined with the accelerating experimental activity on topological phases and multi-qubit systems, this is a ripe time for the study of topological quantum computing.
Organizers: John Gamble and Parsa Bonderson
Quantum error correction is an algorithmic way to reduce the effect of physical errors on a quantum computation by encoding quantum information into a subspace of the entire system. This focus session will highlight recent experimental advances towards quantum error correction and novel theoretical methods for developing and implementing quantum error correcting codes. Topics will vary from topological codes to bosonic codes and from fault-tolerant stabilizer measurements to symmetry protected subspaces.
Organizers: Andrew Landahl, Ken Brown, and Andrew Cross
Machine learning has become a household term due to rapid advances in massively parallel processing units and the equally fast expansion in available data. More recently, we have witnessed a increased interest in applying early quantum technologies to machine learning as an addition to the heterogeneous architectures that learning algorithms already exploit. As noise levels remain high in near-term intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) devices and scalability is also limited, the question is whether these technologies can give any kind of advantage that the machine learning community would be interested in. Much research effort has been dedicated to the application of optimization or sampling by quantum annealing, but we have also seen proposals for learning algorithms using gate-based quantum computers, continuous-variable and open quantum systems. The latest results in the field show distinct advantages in specific learning scenarios, but much more work is needed to develop algorithms for near-term quantum devices. The proposed invited session showcases some of the most interesting results and discusses major open questions.
Organizers: Francesco Petruccione and Antonio Corcoles
It is anticipated that in the near-term future, Noisy Intermediate-Scale Quantum (NISQ) technologies will be available to quantum information scientists. This session explores the potential applications of such quantum computers with ~100 noisy qubits, and how they may serve as a stepping-stone toward larger scale, fault-tolerant devices of the future.
Organizers: Alan Aspuru-Guzik and Simon Benjamin
With the developments of quantum technology, we are at the interesting cutting edge of performing experiments related to quantization of heat transfers, such as understanding how heat dissipates in superposition state and how it is exchanged between entangled states. Linking the physics of heat dissipation to entropy flow and the quantum notion of work indicates that we are equipped to consistently approach understanding one of the long-lasting questions in physics which is what is quantum thermodynamics. In this session we will invite some of the most interesting experimental and theretical results taken about this subject in the last year and this will help experts to establish a roadmap for research in the next year.
Organizer: Mohammad Ansari
Adiabatic quantum computing and quantum annealing are computational methods that have been proposed to solve combinatorial optimization and sampling problems. They have recently been successfully extended to include quantum simulation. Several efforts are underway to manufacture processors that implement these strategies, representing the largest integrated quantum information processing available to date. This session will expose the Physics community to some of the latest results in this exciting and rapidly developing field.
Organizer: Daniel Lidar
Quantum networks form an integral part of quantum technologies, posing significant challenges to science and engineering. On the one hand, quantum networks at short distances promise a path towards scalability of quantum computing systems in which multiple smaller quantum computers are connected into one larger quantum computing cluster. On the other hand, quantum networks at large distances, i.e. a quantum internet, offer a host of new applications such as for example quantum secure communication. The objective of this session is to discuss advancements and challenges in the realization and application of networked quantum technologies. This includes all aspects involved in networked quantum computing and communication systems, ranging from theoretical designs and experimental implementations, all the way to the development of quantum algorithms and protocols for quantum networks.
Organizers: Charlie Bennet and Stephanie Wehner
Today is an exciting time in quantum metrology and measurements of individual quantum systems. Theorists are challenging long-held beliefs and assumptions, ranging from the true limits of resolution (e.g. the Rayleigh criterion), to the proper counting of resources and ultimate achievability of bounds. Inspired by error suppression techniques in quantum computing, they are also finding new avenues to achieve these bounds despite the presence of loss and noise. Experimental work has been no less exciting: quantum-limited measurements are now being made on larger and larger systems, including superconducting circuits and quantum optomechanical systems. Experiments have investigated spin squeezed magnetometry, adaptive phase measurements in qubits and the possibility of quantum-enhanced dark matter searches. This session will provide a forum for discussing the most recent theoretical and experimental results related to quantum measurement, metrology and sensing, as well as provide a venue for discussing future research directions.
Organizers: Aashish Clerk and Konrad Lenhert
The APS Topical Group on Instrumentation and Measurement (GIMS) invites papers on advances in Scanning Probe Microscopy and related instrumentation, with a focus on novel instrumentational approaches, ultrasensitive detection and advanced control and data analytics. Advances in scanning probe force measurement and mapping exploiting novel tip-sample interactions, improved detection sensitivity and widening of circumstances under which they are applied continue to push the frontier in the measurement of a broad range of material, chemical and biological systems. This session will focus on the innovative developments in the areas of scanning probe microscopy and related instrumentation. Particular attention will be given to advances and applications in novel approaches to force detection and techniques for probing a variety of surfaces and interactions. This session seeks to bring together expertise from a variety of fields in scanning probe microscopy that will further the development of advanced instrumentation and measurement science focused on the atomic and nanometer scale.
Organizer: Roger Proksch (Asylum Research, firstname.lastname@example.org)
The APS Topical Group on Instrumentation and Measurement (GIMS) invites papers on advances in Scanning Probe Microscopy and related instrumentation with a focus on optical techniques and radio-frequency measurements. A severe limitation in traditional scanning probe microscopy is low temporal resolution, originating from the diminished high-frequency response of readout circuitry. It was recently shown that some of these obstacles can be overcome. Recent advances in the combination of scanning probe and optical techniques have resulted for example in ultra-fast (sub-picosecond) temporal resolution, scattering near field optical microscopy (SNOM),and tip-enhanced Raman scattering. This session seeks to bring together expertise from a variety of fields in scanned probe microscopy and optical spectroscopy techniques that will further the development of advanced instrumentation and measurement science focused on the atomic and nanometer scale as well as expand the temporal data dimension.
Organizer: Roger Proksch (Asylum Research, email@example.com)
The APS Topical Group on Instrumentation and Measurement (GIMS) invites papers on advances in Scanning Probe Microscopy and related instrumentation with a focus on spectroscopic measurements on novel materials. The scanning tunneling microscope has matured over the last few years into a tool that is now routinely applied in energy-resolved measurement modes at cryogenic temperatures. The atomic-force microscope has been used to measure force-distance curves which give detailed information about atomic species on the surface and at the tip apex as a form of force spectroscopy. These types of spectroscopic measurements generate a wealth of data that can be used to enhance fundamental understanding of functional materials, energy storage and generation materials as a few examples. This session seeks to bring together expertise from a variety of aspects of scanning probe microscopy that will further the development of advanced instrumentation and measurement science, novel control and data analytics approaches focused on the atomic and nanometer scale spectroscopic measurement and interpretation in new and novel materials.
Organizer: Roger Proksch (Asylum Research, firstname.lastname@example.org)
The APS Topical Group on Instrumentation and Measurement (GIMS) invites papers on advances in Scanning Probe Microscopy and related instrumentation with a focus on correlative microscopy on novel materials. Scanning probe microscopes have matured over the last decade into tools that are now routinely used in tandem with other analytical measurement techniques, in many cases enhancing the resolution of those other techniques. This session seeks to bring together expertise from a scanning probe microscopy fields that are combining high resolution SPM measurements with correlative nanomechanical, chemical, photonic measurements of novel materials.
Organizer: Roger Proksch (Asylum Research, email@example.com)
Fluid-structure interactions (FSI) are ubiquitous in nature and engineering. They occur at all scales from the swimming of microorganisms, elastocapillary collapse of MEMS or carbon nanotube forests, to the dynamical stability of offshore structures, and the catastrophic failure of solar drones. Complex nonlinear problems often arise when the deformation of a structure couples with the mechanics of a fluid through its surface tension, inertia, viscosity or other rheological properties. This diversity of FSI problems calls for a plethora of approaches and methodologies, including: reduced analytical models, scaling analyses, multiphysics numerical methods, laboratory experiments and large-scale field tests. Within this plurality of problem settings, applications, physical mechanisms, and methodology, we seek to bring together physicists, engineers, biologists and mathematicians with an interest for FSI, defined broadly. Through this cross-fertilization, we hope to find new solutions to old problems and port existing knowledge to intriguing new questions. In doing so, this will be an opportunity to bridge curiosity-driven fundamental research and problem-solving engineering.
Organizers: Yahya Modarres-Sadeghi (University of Massachusetts, Amherst), Frédérick Gosselin (Polytechnique Montreal)
Thermoelectrics for solid-state power conversion and refrigeration applications continues to be of great interest as new materials and transport phenomena are being discovered. The physics of materials and the associated charge carrier, spin, photon, and phonon transport is of particular interest. This focus topic addresses the latest developments in state of the art materials and novel phenomena, including theory, synthesis, characterization, processing, mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties. These sessions will also highlight the latest application advances in waste heat recovery, high efficiency refrigeration, and how the field can lead to new advances in fundamental condensed-matter physics. Experimental, theoretical, and application and device-related contributions are solicited.
Organizers: Zhifeng Ren (University of Houston, zren2@Central.UH.EDU), Mona Zebarjad (University of Virginia, firstname.lastname@example.org), Bolin Liao (University of California, Santa Barbara, email@example.com)
Practicing physicists often incorporate powerful computational techniques as key elements in their work, and, additionally, physics graduates often end up working in computational fields. Nevertheless, physics courses often include computational tools only to illustrate the physics, with little discussion of the method behind the tools, the limits to a simulation's reliability, and how utilize massively parallel computers. This session will focus on efforts to incorporate modern computational and data analytics techniques into curricula, and especially how to go beyond a specialty course in Computational Physics. We plan to invite contributions describing efforts originating from computational science groups and contributions describing efforts undertaken in a variety of departments.
Organizers: Rubin Landau (Oregon State University, firstname.lastname@example.org), Scott Lathrop (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, email@example.com)
The session will focus on new developments in medical imaging technology (ranging from optical imaging, to ultrasound, to MRI and CT), in particular those driven by development of new emitters and sensors. Example topics include field-emitter x-ray sources, photon-counting x-ray detectors, silicon photomultipliers for nuclear medicine, and detectors for proton imaging. To fully realize potential clinical benefits of such new technologies, new image reconstruction, processing, and analysis algorithms are often necessary. We thus also invite contributed abstracts on such computational developments, ranging from calibration methods to "big data" radiomics. As example, the invited presentation will discuss Digital Tomosynthesis (DT) using novel cold-cathode field emitters organized in a flat panel source (FPS) instead of conventional x-ray tubes. The advantages of a device using an FPS compared to conventional X-rays and DT systems include the ability to acquire images from different angles without any physical movement, the option to create small and compact devices that can be used for bedside imaging and faster acquisition times that will likely reduce the number and severity of motion artifacts.
Organizers: Gil Travish (Adaptix Ltd, firstname.lastname@example.org), Wojtek Zbijewski (Johns Hopkins University, email@example.com)