Magnetism, Fundamental Science
1. Magnetoresistance Data for Fe/Cr/Fe Multilayers
The Magnetoresistance Data for Fe/Cr/Fe Multilayers that inspired the term ‘Giant Magnetoresistance’ (From: M.N. Baibich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2472-2475 (1988)).
Permission from A. Fert. (See also Binash et al., Phys. Rev. B39, 4828 (1989)).
2. First evidence of oscillatory exchange coupling between ferromagnetic layers separated by a non-magnetic layer
(a) Transverse saturation magnetoresistance (4.2K) and (b) saturation field (4.5K) vs Cr layer thickness for three series of structures of the form Si(111)/Cr(100Å)/[Fe(20Å)/Cr(tCr)]N/Cr(50Å) deposited at temperatures of Δ, , 40°C (N = 30);O, 125°C (N = 20). From: S.S.P. Parkin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2304 (1990).
Permission from S.S.P. Parkin.
3. First published Current-Perpendicular-to-Plane (CPP) Magnetoresistance (MR) data.
Comparison of CPP-MR, Current-in-Plane (CIP)-MR, and Magnetization (M). Data are for [Co(6nm)/Ag(6nm)]x60 multilayers. After W.P. Pratt et. al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 3060 (1991).
Permission from J. Bass.
4. First large Tunneling Magnetoresistance (TMR) at Room Temperature
Comparison of MR% for single films of Co, CoFe, and Tunneling trilayer of Co/Al203/Co. Note different scales. (From: J.S. Moodera et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, p 3273-3276 (1995).
Permission from J. Moodera.
5. First published experimental evidence of Current-Induced Magnetic Excitations in Magnetic Multilayers.
dV/dI vs dc applied voltage V for a point contact to a Co/Cu/Co multilayer. After M. Tsoi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4281-4284 (1998)).
Permission from J. Bass.
6. First published example of Current-Induced Magnetization- Switching (CIMS) in a nanopillar
(a) dV/dI of a Co/Cu/Co nanopillar showing hysteretic jumps as the current is swept from zero; light and dark lines show increasing and decreasing current. Traces offset for clarity. Inset table lists critical currents for deviations from fully parallel (I+) or anti-parallel (I-) states. (b) Zero- bias magnetoresistive hysteresis loop for the same sample. From: J.A. Katine et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3149-3152 (2000).
Permission from D. Ralph.
7. X-ray Magnetic Circular and Linear Dichorism images of Ferromagnetic/Antiferromagnetic multilayers
X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichorism (XMCD)images (left) and X-ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism (XMLD) images (right) of Ferromagnetic/Antiferromagnetic: Co/Ni) (top) and Fe/NiO (bottom) multilayers. Examples of collinear alignment between ferromagnetic (F) moment and antiferromagnetic (AF) axis of F/AF layers. X-rays are incident along the vertical image direction. The legends on the side correlate the observed grey levels to the direction of the magnetic moment in each ferromagnetic domain and the orientation of the magnetic axis in each antiferromagnetic moment.
Permission from H. Ohldag, A. Scholl, and J. Stohr.: Ohldag Ph.D. thesis and Phys. Rev. Lett. Vol 86 p. 2878 (2001)
8. Azimuthal Dependence of Ferromagnetic (F) and Anti-Ferromagnetic (AF) Contrast on Co/NiO(001)
Images of antiferromagnetic (AF) and ferromagnetic (F) domains acquired with different angles between the electric field vector and the crystal axes. All images were taken at the same position on the sample surface. The legends on the side correlate the observed grey levels to the direction of the magnetic moment in each ferromagnetic domain and the orientation of the magnetic axis in each antiferromagnetic domain. The arrows indicate the direction of the spin moment or axis in each magnetic domain. a.) Same geometry as in previous figure. b.) The incoming x-rays are parallel to a high symmetry direction . No antiferromagnetic contrast and only two ferromagnetic domains are visible. c.) The electric field vector is parallel to an in plane  direction. The ferromagnetic contrast of one subset of domains vanishes while the other one reaches a value of 18%. Ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic contrast arising from each domain is reversed compared to the situation depicted in a.)
Permission from H. Ohldag, A. Scholl, and J. Stohr: Ohldag Ph.D. thesis and Phys. Rev. Lett. Vol 86 p. 2878 (2001)