FIAP Program for the March APS Meeting, March 3-7, 2014

David Seiler, NIST

The objective of this year’s FIAP program is to showcase several frontiers of physics areas of interest to the industrial and applied attendees of the Society. This year FIAP is again partnering with the Corporate Associates of the American Institute of Physics (AIP) to co-organize the Industrial Physics Forum (IPF). For over 30 years, the IPF sponsored by the American Institute of Physics (AIP) has brought together research managers and decision makers from industry, academia, and government, who seek to keep abreast of the latest research affecting the industrial and applied physics community.

All FIAP invited speaker sessions form the IPF program which will take place on Tuesday through Thursday, March 4-6, 2014 in Denver, Colorado. The FIAP/IPF program features invited-speaker sessions that are of interest to industrial and applied physics attendees and which also complement other APS sessions. Experts from many disciplines of physics discuss new advances and applications of physics that form the basis of industrial innovation.

The theme of the 2014 AIP/APS Industrial Physics Forum is Frontiers of Industrial and Applied Physics. Seven invited speaker sessions are being held (described in more detail later) on the following subjects: Half Centennial of the SQUID; Frontiers of Physics; Physics and Industrial Applications of Optoelectronics; Advances in Measurement Technology; Frontiers of Nanomaterials and Interfaces; Device Physics at the Nanoscale; and a unique interactive panel on Industrial Innovation and the Intersection Between Industry, Academia, and Government.

Invited Speaker Sessions for FIAP/Industrial Physics Forum at the 2014 March APS Meeting

8am - 11am   Session #1: Half Centennial of the SQUID Session #3: Physics and Industrial Applications of Optoelectronics Session #5: Frontiers of Nanomaterials and Interfaces  
11:15am – 2:15pm     Session #4: Advances in Measurement Technology Session #6: Device Physics at the Nanoscale  
Lunch   12-1:30 Lunch with the Experts      
2:30 – 5:30pm   Session #2:
Frontiers of Physics
Note that Kavli Session will be here Session #7:Interactive Panel: Industrial Innovation…  
5:30 – 7pm   FIAP Business Meeting   FIAP & AIP Reception  


Session 1. Half Centennial of the SQUID
8 – 11am
Tuesday, March 4

Session Chairs:
John Clarke, Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley CA
Dale Van Harlingen, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Session Description: What is the most widely used small scale superconducting device used today? The SQUID—with its exquisite sensitivity to magnetic field, voltage, and other physical quantities with a broad range of applications involving ultrasensitive measurements that would otherwise not be possible. The goals of this session are, first, to present a historical perspective of the origins of the SQUID, starting with two talks describing the primitive devices of the early days and tracing the development of today’s modern SQUIDs and, second, to provide a broad overview of three applications of SQUIDs that have had a huge impact in advancing science.

Speakers will discuss events that led to the invention of the SQUID, describe early thin-film devices that ultimately led to today’s practical SQUIDs, discuss the combination of the transition edge sensor with SQUID amplifiers to yield the world’s most sensitive detector of far infrared electromagnetic radiation, present the use of high transition temperature SQUIDs in geophysical prospecting by measuring the magnetic response of the Earth’s surface to a large injected current, and give an overview of the application of SQUID-based gradiometers to magnetoencephalography (MEG), the detection of tiny magnetic signals emanating from the human brain. Such sensors are installed on many telescopes around the world, with typically 1000 on a given telescope. Numerous important cosmological discoveries have been enabled by this technology. The same technology finds applications in national security.


Arnold Silver, Ford motor company (retired) — “Origins of the SQUIDs”
Abstract: John Lambe’s accidental observation during microwave electron-nuclear double resonance experiments led to the first observation of macroscopic quantum interference in superconductors by John Lambe, Robert Jaklevic, James Mercereau, and Arnold Silver at the Ford Scientific Laboratory. This device incorporated two Josephson tunnel junctions in a thin-film superconducting ring, the “dc SQUID,” acronym for Superconducting Quantum Interference Device. Further investigations by Arnold Silver and James Zimmerman produced a phenomenological model of the SQUID based on the switching of single magnetic flux quanta (h/2e) by Josephson junctions and a single junction device, the “rf SQUID.”

John Clarke, UC Berkeley — “SQUIDs: Then and Now”
Abstract: Following the observation of macroscopic quantum interference in the SQUID—a superconducting ring containing two Josephson junctions—the SLUG, consisting of a blob of solder frozen around a piece of niobium wire, was used as a voltmeter with a resolution of 10 femtovolts. The extraordinary sensitivity of today’s SQUIDs to magnetic flux makes possible an amazingly diverse range of applications. A quantum limited amplifier enables a search for the axion—a candidate particle for cold dark matter. An ultra sensitive magnetometer is used in magnetic resonance imaging at frequencies four orders of magnitude lower than in clinical systems.

Kent Irwin, Stanford University — “SQUID-amplified photon detection: from cosmology to material science”
Abstract: Superconducting photon detectors amplified by SQUIDs are playing an increasing role in science ranging from cosmology to materials characterization. In cosmology, they are used to measure the cosmic microwave background, resulting in new constraints on cosmological parameters, including the absolute masses of neutrino species and the possibility of additional sterile neutrinos. Very similar SQUID-amplified detectors show great promise at synchrotrons and free electron laser x-ray sources, where their combination of high x-ray spectral resolution and high efficiency enables new science.

Cathy Foley, CSIRO, Materials Science and Engineering, Sydney, Australia — “SQUIDs for mineral exploration: finding billions of dollars”
Abstract: This talk tells the story of SQUIDs in geophysics, beginning with the work of SQUID pioneers including Jim Zimmerman and John Clarke in the early 1980s. It was the discovery of high temperature superconductors, however, that drove the application of SQUIDs to mineral exploration. The subsequent development of magnetometers and gradiometers from the early 1990s—and continuing today—led to successful commercialisation by start-up companies and significant impact on the global resources industry. Some critical technical challenges that had to be overcome are described. To date, SQUID-based systems have discovered mineral deposits estimated to be worth US$6 billion.

Risto Ilmoniemi, Aalto University, Helsinki — "Magnetoencephalography: From first steps to clinical applications"
Abstract: Magnetoencephalography or MEG, the measurement of femtotesla-level magnetic fields produced by electrical signaling in the brain, became possible by the introduction of the SQUID magnetometer in the late 1960’s. Today, the complete magnetic field distribution over the head can be measured with arrays consisting of hundreds of SQUIDs. Advantages of MEG include its non-invasiveness, perfect time resolution, accuracy in locating brain activity, and ease of use. Clinical applications include the characterization of epileptic activity prior to neurosurgery. Future trends point to further improvements in sensitivity and the use of the SQUIDs also for ultra-low-field MRI in hybrid measurement systems.

Session 2. Frontiers of Physics
2:30pm – 5:30pm
Tuesday, March 4

Session Chair: James Hollenhorst, Agilent Technologies

Session Description: Speakers will describe some of the latest exciting scientific challenges occurring in physics. These topics are well outside the usual focus of physics in industry, so join us for information beyond the bleeding edge of product technology. You might come away with an inspiration for your next project!


Suzanne Staggs, Princeton University — “Probing the Last 13.8 Billion Years in the Universe with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope”
Abstract:The Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) is a 6 m special purpose telescope designed to measure the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at millimeter wavelengths. ACT has an angular resolution of better than 1.4', which means it measures not only the primordial fluctuations in the CMB, but is also sensitive to the intervening universe in several ways. ACT observes from a site at 5300 m elevation in the Atacama Desert in Chile. This midlatitude site allows ACT to map regions of the sky in which there exist substantial data from surveys at other wavelengths. Cross-correlating the ACT lensing deflection field with other optical surveys in the same region is a particularly fruitful way of deriving cosmological information on the expansion history of the universe.

H. Eugene Stanley, Boston University — “The Physics of a Networked World”
Abstract: Massive power outages, global financial crashes and sudden cardiac death seem to be unrelated phenomena. However, they all could be viewed as shocks to interconnected systems, whose interdependencies create dangerous vulnerabilities. We have uncovered laws that show why everyday fluctuations in one network can trigger abrupt failures across coupled networks. Market moves that economists call "rare events" turn out to have the same statistical properties as everyday fluctuations in physical systems. Recently, we have applied these principles to analyzing Google query data and to finding early warning signs of market changes.

Pamela G. Conrad, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center — “Exploring the Habitability Potential of Mars with Mars Science Laboratory”
Abstract: Curiosity has been roving Gale Crater since landing on Mars on August 5, 2013. The investigations that comprise the Mars Science Laboratory payload have interrogated the environment in as comprehensive an approach as has ever been attempted on the surface of another planet, using a variety of approaches to characterize both the surface materials and the atmosphere. This talk will summarize Curiosity's progress at Gale Crater.

Rupak Mahapatra, Texas A&M University“Cryogenic Semiconductor Detectors in Search of Dark Matter”
Abstract: Dark Matter dominates the matter content in the Universe and is believed to be made up of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMP) that rarely interact with ordinary matter. Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) has been a leader among more than 30 experiments worldwide, which are attempting to detect tiny vibrations from the recoil of WIMPs in terrestrial detectors. It uses sophisticated photo-lithographically patterned cryogenically cooled large mass Germanium and Silicon. Help from the semiconductor industry has been crucial in reducing the cost 20 fold from half-million/kg, while simultaneously improving the quality and throughput of fabrication, essential for large ton-scale experiments capable of making such a discovery possible.

Ellen Zweibel, University of Wisconsin — “The Physics of Cosmic Rays”
Abstract: Cosmic rays, mostly relativistic protons, comprise only about one billionth of interstellar particles by number, but have as much energy as the rest of the interstellar gas combined. They are probably accelerated in supernova remnants, and are confined to the Galaxy by the interstellar magnetic field. Through interacting with the field, they exchange energy and momentum with the interstellar gas, driving turbulence, outflows, and generating significant heat. An even smaller minority of cosmic rays, those with the highest energies, probably originate outside the Galaxy and challenge all existing theories of how they are accelerated.

Session 3. Physics and Industrial Applications of Optoelectronics
8am – 11am
Wednesday, March 5

Session Chairs: Robert Hickernell, NIST
Steven S Rosenblum, Corning, Inc.

Session description: How important is optoelectronics? What are some of today's frontiers? Do you know that optoelectronics is pervasive in industry and society, covering a broad spectrum of applications including materials processing, optical communications, imaging, sensing, display, material science, astronomy, solar energy, security, and others? Lasers alone play a pivotal role in enabling over $6 trillion of revenue in the transportation, bio-tech/healthcare, telecom, e-commerce, and information technology sectors of the U.S. economy.

Rapid advances in optoelectronics research and development are occurring at the intersection of physics and other disciplines.  The goal of this session is to highlight the range of application space with overviews and specific examples of cutting-edge optoelectronics research in industry and university laboratories.  The anticipated audience of applied physicists, from students through senior scientists, should come away with an excitement for the future of the field and its potential for new discoveries that will ultimately translate into products and services which greatly improve the quality of life.


Alan Willner, USC — “The National Academies' Report on Optics and Photonics: The Road to a National Photonics Initiative”
Abstract: This presentation will highlight aspects of the recent report from the U.S. National Academies on Optics and Photonics. Enabling science and technology issues were discussed, as well as the past and future impact on the economy. A key recommendation of the study is the formation of a National Photonics Initiative, which has started taking shape with the crucial backing of the major professional societies.

Marin Soljacic, Massachusetts Institute of Technology — “Nanophotonic phenomena in systems of macroscopic sizes”
Abstract: Nanophotonic techniques provide unprecedented opportunities for controlling behavior of light. However, to make these techniques useful for many applications of interest (e.g., energy applications) one has to have the ability to implement nanophotonic techniques in systems of large sizes. I will present some promising novel nanophotonic phenomena, as well as some fabrication techniques to implement them on large scales.

Carmen S. Menoni, Colorado State University — “Exploring the nano-world with soft x-ray lasers”
Abstract: Bright soft x-ray laser (SXRL) beams with wavelengths in the range of 10-50 nm are enabling the implementation of imaging and patterning tools that can probe the nano-world on a table top.  In this talk I will describe novel microscopies that have reached sub-50 nm spatial resolution and can: i) image dynamics at the nanoscale using single-shot flash illumination, ii) image surfaces and iii) map chemical composition in three dimensions. I will also present a SXR coherent defect-free lithography method for printing nanoscale patterns suited for sensing and plasmonics applications.

John E. Bowers and Chong Zhang, University of California, Santa Barbara — “Hybrid III-V Silicon Lasers”
Abstract: A number of important breakthroughs in the past decade have focused attention on Si as a photonic platform. We review here recent progress in this field, focusing on efforts to make lasers, amplifiers, modulators and photodetectors on or in silicon. We also describe optimum quantum well design and distributed feedback cavity design to reduce the threshold and increase the efficiency and power output. The impact active silicon photonic integrated circuits could have on interconnects, telecommunications and on silicon electronics is reviewed.

Marshall G. Jones, GE Corporate Research Center — “Laser Material Processing in Manufacturing”
Abstract: This presentation will address some of the past, present, and potential uses of lasers for material processing in manufacturing. Laser processing includes welding, drilling, cutting, cladding, etc. The U.S. was the hotbed for initial uses of lasers for material processing in the past with Europe, especially Germany, presently leading the way. The future laser-processing leader may still be Germany. Selected uses, past and present, of lasers within GE will also be highlighted as seen in such businesses units as Aviation, Lighting, Power & Water, Healthcare, and Transportation.

Session 4. Advances in Measurement Technology
11:15am – 2:15pm
Wednesday, March 5

Session Chair: Martin E. Poitzsch, Schlumberger-Doll Research

Session Description: How important are measurements in our society? In science? In industry? Historically, measurement innovation has led to some of the most dramatic advances in science and technology. In turn, this has led to the invention of even better measurements, and the cycle continues. Physicists have always been at the forefront, inventing new measurements and improving the existing ones. In this session, we will explore recent developments at the cutting edge of measurement technology that are of great commercial interest.


Joseph L. Dehmer, NIST — “Advances in measurement science and standards”
Abstract: The NIST mission is to promote U.S. innovation and industrial competitiveness by advancing measurement science, standards, and technology. The Physical Measurement Laboratory has responsibility for maintaining national standards for two dozen physical quantities needed for international trade; and, importantly, it carries out advanced research at the frontiers of measurement science to enable extending innovation into new realms and new markets. This talk will highlight advances being made across several sectors of technology; and it will describe how PML interacts with its many collaborators and clients in industry, government, and academe.

Jason Cleveland, Asylum Research — “Recent advances in atomic force microscopy technology”
Abstract: I will review several recent advances in commercial AFM technology. The first will be the development of ultra-small AFM cantilevers which allow higher resolution imaging in liquids and faster imaging in air. The second is quantitative mechanical measurements using multifrequency AC techniques. Finally, I will discuss a new option for driving the cantilever photo thermally using a second laser. This vastly improves ease of use in liquids and provides greatly improved stability in the cantilever drive relative to piezo techniques, thus improving AC imaging modes as well as nanomechanical measurements.

Alain Diebold, University at Albany — “Metrology tools for semiconductor manufacturing”
Abstract: The nanoscale dimension of the devices and structures used to fabricate present and future generations of integrated circuits provide numerous challenges for measurement technology. There are two means by which measurement technology advances. First, existing measurement equipment often provides unexpected capability through advances in modeling and new applications (e.g., optical models for nanoscale materials for film thickness, X-Ray diffraction, X-Ray reciprocal space maps, etc.). The second means is through new measurement equipment (e.g., the Mueller Matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry equipment that is used for critical dimension measurements). This talk will cover the physical principles of two examples (3D shape and CD measurement of fins and measurement of structures fabricated using directed self-assembly of block co-polymers) as well as recent advances and breakthroughs in metrology.

Lawrence A. Crum, University of Washington — “Recent advances in medical ultrasound”
Abstract: Ultrasound has become one of the most widely used imaging modalities in medicine; yet, before ultrasound-imaging systems became available, high intensity ultrasound was used as early as the 1950s to ablate regions in the brains of human patients. Recently, a variety of novel applications of ultrasound have been developed that include site-specific and ultrasound-mediated drug delivery, acoustocautery, lipoplasty, histotripsy, tissue regeneration, and bloodless surgery, among many others. This lecture will review several new applications of therapeutic ultrasound and address some of the basic scientific questions and future challenges in developing these methods and technologies for general use in our society. We shall particularly emphasize the use of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) in the treatment of benign and malignant tumors.

Harold Pfutzner, Schlumberger — “High Sensitivity Gravity Measurements in the Adverse Environment of Oil Wells”
Abstract: Bulk density is a primary measurement within oil and gas reservoirs and is the basis of most reserves calculations by oil companies, but nuclear density measurements, while very precise, are very shallow and therefore susceptible to errors. The acceleration due to gravity along a well is a direct measure of density with a very large depth of investigation. Advances in gravity sensors and associated mechanics and electronics provide an opportunity for routine borehole gravity measurements with comparable density precision and sufficient ruggedness to survive the rough handling and high temperatures. We will describe a borehole gravity meter and its use under very realistic conditions in an oil well in Saudi Arabia. The density measurements will be presented.

Session 5. Frontiers of Nanomaterials and Interfaces
8 – 11am
Thursday, March 6

Session Chairs:
Ichiro Takeuchi, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park
Luigi Colombo, External Research Development Group, Texas Instruments Incorporated

Session Description: Nanomaterials are at the forefront of “Future Materials Manufacturing” for energy, electronics and biological applications. The goal of this session is to survey the latest developments in materials for energy storage and generation; showcase significant advances in the field of directed self-assembly of nano materials, III-Vs and 2D crystals; present the state-of-the-art in top-down approaches to materials scaling for nanoelectronics for current generation transistors as well as beyond CMOS devices; and introduce the principles behind biophysicochemical processes on nanostructured surfaces.

These subjects will be of interest to experts for overviews of the state of the art and future directions as well as to students and post docs interested in pursuing a career in these very exciting fields.


Rodney S. Ruoff, The University of Texas at Austin — “Novel Carbons as Electrodes for Electrical Energy Storage”
Abstract: In this talk I will speculate about directions for carbon materials as the electrode(s) in Electrical Energy Storage (EES) systems such as ultracapacitors and Li ion batteries. Perhaps the ultimate electrode material for ultracapacitors (based on charge storage by electrical double layer capacitance) would be a ‘negative curvature carbon’ (NCC, akin to the Schwartzite structures) with atom thick walls, and possibly substitutionally doped with, e.g., N atoms in case the all-carbon structure were limited by quantum (i.e., intrinsic) capacitance. Such an NCC would have a distribution of pore sizes that would likely (for optimal performance) span ‘mesoscale’ and ‘microscale’ pores, which in the parlance of porous materials means pores “above 2-3 nanometers” and pores “below about 2 nanometers,” respectively. Making such materials offers exciting challenges for materials chemists/synthetic chemists, and to date only the ‘basic’ Schwarzite structures (ideal crystals studied by DFT with periodic boundary conditions and relatively simple unit cells) have been modeled in terms of properties such as their electronic states and in some cases, potential as all carbon ferromagnets.

Liangbing Hu, University of Maryland, College Park — “Nanocellulose as material building block for energy and flexible electronics”
Abstract: In this talk, I will discuss the fabrications, properties and device applications of functional nanostructured paper based on nanocellulose. Nanostructures with tunable optical, electrical, ionic and mechanical properties will be discussed. Lab-scale demonstration devices, including low-cost Na-ion batteries, microbial fuel cells, solar cells, transparent transistors, actuators and touch screens will be briefly mentioned. These studies show that nanocellulose is a promising green material for electronics and energy devices.

Theresa Mayer, The Pennsylvania State University — “Directed Self-Assembly of III-V Semiconductor Nanowire and 2D Atomic Crystal Nanosheet Arrays for Advanced Nanoelectronic Devices”
Abstract: A variety of advanced materials and structures are being explored for next-generation ultra-low-power nanoelectronic devices to augment the capabilities provided by Si-based complementary logic. Interband tunneling field effect (TFET) transistors are particularly attractive because of their sub-60 mV/dec subthreshold swing (SS) and high current drive capabilities. This talk will provide an overview of recent progress to integrate abrupt, axially doped InGaAs nanowire TFET arrays and 2D atomic crystal nanosheets onto Si substrates using electric-field directed self-assembly. This strategy has enabled fabrication of the first lateral p+-i-n+ InGaAs nanowire TFETs with up to ten parallel aligned wires to study the effect of aggressive scaling on device figures of merit. 

Sadasivan (Sadas) Shankar, Intel Corporation — “Materials 3.0 – The Next Revolution in Materials”
Abstract: Materials have played a central role during all advances in human civilization as far back as recorded histories exist. It is possible to characterize the application of materials in technologies in three distinct eras. In the first era, during the industrial revolution materials were mainly used for structural and functional applications. In the second era, which includes the information technology revolution, material properties were exploited by integrating them in structures and combining different materials in a systematic manner. In the third era, we indicate that materials application will enter the next era in which size will be used to design materials with targeted properties. For the advent of so-called “smart” materials at nano dimensions (between atomic and macrostructures) both properties and synthesis will lead to many new applications, where differences between devices and materials will disappear. “Nanomaterials” will have new properties because nanotechnology provides the ability to manufacture many new phases. However, this will also pose challenges in terms of modeling and characterization given the complex nature of the materials and also due to increasing effects of interfaces of these materials. We will outline with examples from multiple industries.

Andre Nel, UCLA Med-NanoMedicine — “How Events at the Nano/Bio Interface Determine Good and Adverse Biological Outcomes”
Abstract: Much of biology is executed at the nanoscale level. Thus, discovering the structure and function of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) at the nano/bio interface for interrogation of disease, diagnosis, treatment, and imaging at levels of sophistication not possible before opens innovative frontiers. Moreover, the behavior of ENM’s at the nano/bio interface also constitutes the basis for hazard generation and is therefore key for understanding the safety assessment and safer design of nanomaterials. In this overview, I will discuss how discovery at the molecular, cellular, organ and systemic nano/bio interfaces has helped advance the fields of nanomedicine and nanotoxicology. I will explain how the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials relate to nanoscale interactions at the membrane, intracellular organelles, tissues and organs in response to exposure to a variety of commercial engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) as well as for therapeutic nanocarriers. I will delineate how the use of high throughput screening to establish structure-activity relationships can be used for the design of improved nanocarriers for cancer treatment as well as hazard and risk ranking of large categories of commercial ENMs on their way to the marketplace.

Session 6. Device Physics at the Nanoscale
11:15am – 2:15pm
Thursday, March 6

Session Chair: Professor Ernesto E. Marinero, Purdue University

Session Description: This invited session will bring together in a single forum leading academic and industrial researchers working on frontier fields in nanoscale electronics devices. Five distinguished speakers will review the state-of-the-art on quantum transport of charge carriers and electron spin in novel devices, their fabrication and characterization of their physical and structural properties. In addition, the session will cover the challenges and opportunities facing the scalability and manufacturing of said devices.


Supriyo Datta, Purdue University — “Spin Transistor, Spin Circuits and Spin Logic”
Abstract: There has been enormous progress in the last two decades effectively combining spintronics and magnetics into a powerful force that is shaping the field of memory devices, but the impact on logic devices still remains uncertain. In light of these developments, this talk will revisit the concept of a spin transistor along with those of spin circuits and spin logic and the theoretical framework used for their analysis and design.

Hideo Ohno, Tohoku Univeristy — “Nanoscale Magnetic Tunnel Junction”
Abstract: I will review state-of-the-art magnetic tunnel junction technology, now approaching 20 nm device dimension, and discuss about the challenges and future prospects to go far beyond. The physics involved in realizing high performance nanoscale magnetic tunnel junction in terms of tunnel magnetoresistance ratio, threshold current for spin-transfer switching, and thermal stability as well as the materials science involved in the technology will be addressed.

Dmitri E. Nikonov and Ian A. Young, Intel Corporation — “Benchmarking Emerging Logic Devices”
Abstract: As complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (CMOS FETs) are being scaled to ever smaller sizes by the semiconductor industry, the demand is growing for emerging logic devices to supplement CMOS in various special functions. Research directions and concepts of such devices are overviewed. They include tunneling, graphene based, spintronic devices, etc. The methodology to estimate future performance of emerging (beyond CMOS) devices and simple logic circuits based on them is explained. Results of benchmarking are used to identify more promising concepts and to map pathways for improvement of beyond CMOS computing.

Tsu-Jae King Liu, UC Berkeley — “Mechanical Computing Redux: Limitations at the Nanoscale”
Abstract: Technology solutions for overcoming the energy efficiency limits of nanoscale complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology ultimately will be needed in order to address the growing issue of integrated-circuit “chip” power density. Off-state leakage current (IOFF) sets a fundamental lower limit in energy per operation for any voltage-level-based digital logic implemented with transistors (CMOS and beyond), which leads to practical limits for device density (i.e., cost) and operating frequency (i.e., system performance). Mechanical switches have zero IOFF and hence can overcome this fundamental limit. Contact adhesive force sets a lower limit for the switching energy of a mechanical switch, however, and also directly impacts its performance. This talk will review recent progress toward the development of nano-electro-mechanical relay technology, describe the physics of nanoscale contacts, and discuss remaining challenges for realizing the promise of mechanical computing for ultra-low-power computing.

Alan H. MacDonald, UT Austin — “Many-Body Switches*”
Abstract: Most current electronic devices use gate voltages to switch individual electron transport channels on or off. This architecture necessarily leads to operating voltages that are much larger than the room temperature thermal energy and places lower bounds on power consumption that are becoming unacceptable. I will discuss potential devices in which gates are used to alter collective many-electron states, in principle allowing charge transport to be switched by much smaller voltage changes and both operating voltages and power consumption to be reduced. I will specifically address devices based on the properties of itinerant electron and insulating magnetic systems, and devices based on bilayer exciton condensation.

* Talk based on worked performed in collaboration with Professors Sanjay Banerjee and Frank Register, UT Austin.

Session 7: Interactive Panel - Industrial Innovation: An Intersection Between Industry, Academia, and Government
2:30pm – 5:30pm
Thursday, March 6

Session Chair: David Seiler, NIST

Session Description: A unique industrial panel covering the challenges and needs of industry and how being innovative is important. The session involves two invited industry speakers who will set the stage for the interactive round table panel session. The Panel, led by moderator Mark Bernius (Morgan Advanced Materials), consists of the two invited speakers plus an additional five industry panelists. Questions to the panel will come from the moderator, the audience, and the panelists themselves. Questions that might be addressed include: how physicists are or could be critical in advancing innovation; how can AIP/APS/FIAP help industry get the physics help they need to be innovative (knowledge, the right staff, etc.); what role can students and post docs play in advancing industry’s mission; etc. We invite you to participate in this interactive session and ask our industry experts interesting and challenging questions.

The invited speakers are George Thompson, Intel, and Rick Watkins, Nike. The panel members also include Jason Cleveland, Asylum Research; Robert Doering, Texas Instruments; William Gallagher, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center; James Hollenhorst, Agilent Technologies; and Martin Poitzsch, Schlumberger-Doll Research.

A networking reception will follow after the interactive panel is finished at 5:30pm.


George Thompson, Intel Corporation - Industry - Government Collaboration as an Engine of Innovation
Abstract: The role of the government in encouraging innovation is a widely discussed topic in science policy today. This talk will review at a high level some of the different models for collaboration between industry and government, with an eye towards elucidating some of the collaboration characteristics that may be best correlated to successful innovation. Specific examples of programs based on goal setting, supporting the relevant national labs and universities, and direct public – private partnerships will be described in order to provide concrete examples.

Rick Watkins, Nike IHM, Inc. - Innovation @ Nike – Performance Excellence through Materials Science
Abstract: Nike Innovation thrives on five key values: Athlete Obsessed, Entrepreneurial, Creative, Collaborative and Story Telling. To support these values Nike employs highly skilled researchers and cutting edge research tools to push materials and processes to their performance limits. Examples showing how an intelligent blend of Edisonian experimentation intermingled with fundamental polymer science and physics have been used to develop, demonstrate and commercialize performance enhanced footwear. Concluding remarks will discuss Nike’s roadmap for expanding its material’s researcher palette to accelerate Innovation to push the limits of materials in a sustainable way.

Opinions expressed represent the views of the individual authors and not the American Physical Society or authors’ employers.