AAPT 129th National Meeting
Special Invited Session
July 31 - August 4, 2004
Co-sponsored by DPB / FEd
Chair: Andy Sessler
Eighty Years of Particle AcceleratorsAndrew M. Sessler
Center for Beam Physics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Dr. Sessler has a long and distinguished career. He is the Director Emeritus of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (was Director 1973-80). In 1998 he was President of the American Physical Society. Dr. Sessler is recognized internationally for his work in theoretical accelerator physics. He is the recipient of many awards.
Abstract: The development of particle accelerators started in the 1920s in an effort to develop a laboratory device that would enable physicists to make nuclear reactions and make artificial radioactivity (thus doing away with the need to use radioactive materials, while broadening the scope of possibilities). Thus, first, electrostatic machines were developed, and then, later, cyclotrons, betatrons, synchrotrons, and colliders. At the same time new, and ever better, detectors were developed. With these machines, and detectors, a wealth of physics was uncovered. Furthermore, the accelerators, themselves, proved to have uses far beyond those originally envisioned. A brief historical review will be presented of the accelerators, with comments upon their principles of operation and the technical advances that permitted ever-better machines to be constructed, while the science these machines make accessible will be partially covered in the various talks of this symposium.
Modern Accelerators: How they are built, why they are built and their futureAlvin V. Tollestrup
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
Alvin Tollestrup's many achievements include his indispensable contributions in building the Tevatron with its groundbreaking use of 1,000 superconducting magnets. Tollestrup began his particle physics career in 1946 as a graduate student at Caltech, where he spent the next 25 years. In 1975 he arrived at Fermilab and began working on superconducting accelerator technology. He was awarded the 1989 National Medal of Technology along with Fermilab's Helen Edwards, Dick Lundy and Rich Orr for the design, construction and initial operation of the Tevatron, which remains the world's highest-energy particle accelerator. Over the years, Tollestrup has served as co-spokesperson for the CDF experiment, and has become involved in the creation of an astrophysics center at the laboratory. He is energetic in championing the cause of young researchers, sponsoring seminars on careers in accelerator research, and presenting an annual award to postdoctoral researchers which is funded by Fermilab's operating consortium, Universities Research Association, Inc.
Abstract: The present machines that are exploring the fundamental laws of physics at high energy collide beams of electrons against positrons, electrons against protons, protons against anti-protons, and heavy ions against each other. Some of the problems that arise in the construction of these machines and that limit their energy reach are explored. They have produced a beautiful picture of the structure of matter down to distances less that one thousandth of the proton radius. And yet experiments that use accelerators as well as experiments in astrophysics, indicate that we do not yet understand the universe around us. Machines that are being planned and built now will help to answer some of these questions, but will raise many more. This paper will discuss some of these issues. *This work was supported under US DOE Contract DE-AC02-76CH03000
Medical Applications of AcceleratorsArlene J. Lennox
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
Dr. Arlene Lennox received her Bachelor of Science degree in Mathematics from Notre Dame College in Cleveland, Ohio and spent six years teaching math and science at the secondary school level before starting graduate work in Physics at the University of Notre Dame. She was the first woman to receive a PhD in Elementary Particle Physics from Notre Dame. She combined research in particle physics with part-time teaching at the college level until 1985 when she became Department Head at the Fermilab Neutron Therapy Facility. Since then she has been involved in the both the clinical and medical physics aspects of neutron therapy. She worked on the accelerator now used for proton therapy at Loma Linda Medical Center and is familiar with most aspects of particle therapy for treating cancer.
Abstract: Accelerators used for medicine include synchrotrons, cyclotrons, and electron, proton and light ion linear accelerators (linacs). The most common application of accelerators in medicine is the use of electron linacs in conventional radiation therapy for cancerous tumors. Small proton linacs and cyclotrons are increasingly being used to produce short-lived radioisotopes for positron emission tomography (PET) scans. Larger accelerators, which were formerly found only at physics laboratories, are beginning to be used in clinics for improved forms of radiation therapy called hadron therapy. This paper describes the different types of accelerators, with emphasis on the parameters that make each appropriate for specific applications. Issues related to moving newer applications from the realm of research to a more universally available commercial environment will be discussed. *Operated by Universities Research Association for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract #DE-AC02-76CH0300
Accelerators to make Electricity-- An Overview of Heavy-Ion-Driven FusionC.M. Celata
E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory
Christine Celata is a physicist and accelerator designer at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and deputy head of the LBNL Fusion program. She has worked for 16 of the last 20 years on ideas for using heavy ion accelerators for future fusion energy. She is a member of the Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory, a collaboration between Lawrence Berkeley and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, and the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory.
Abstract: Making commercial electrical power using nuclear fusion is a possible safe, environmentally friendly method of energy production; fuel is plentiful. Heavy ion accelerators are a good candidate for heating and compressing the heavy hydrogen fuel to the state necessary for fusion to occur. Providing the large amount of power necessary (about 500 terawatts every fifth of a second) necessitates a different kind of accelerator from classical accelerators used in high energy or nuclear physics. Multiple (~100) very intense beams of heavy ions must be accelerated to a few GeV simultaneously, then focused to a target a few millimeters in radius. The beam physics is very different from classical accelerator physics because beam particle density is ~1,000,000 times larger. The commercial energy motivation, the accelerator system to drive the fusion, and the beam physics involved will be discussed, along with description of experiments that are showing feasibility of this approach. *This work supported by the Office of Energy Research, U.S. Department of Energy, under contract numbers DE-AC03-76SF00098, W-7405-Eng-48, DE-AI02-93ER40799, AC02-76CH03073, and DE-AI02-94ER-54232.
Accelerator Mass Spectrometry: Isotopic Science Tools from Archaeology to ZoologyJay C. Davis
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Dr. Jay C. Davis retired in 2002 from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory where he served as the first National Security Fellow at the Center for Global Security Research. For the three years prior to rejoining Livermore in July of 2001, he served as the founding Director of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency of the United States Department of Defense.
Abstract: The discovery that tandem electrostatic accelerators could be configured for accurate single atom detection of rare isotopes produced a revolution in many scientific disciplines. This technique produced a gain in sensitivity of up to 106 relative to scintillation counting for many isotopes, producing great advances in archaeology, the study of climate records and processes, and the reconstruction of dosimetry from events such as Hiroshima, Nagasaki and Chernobyl. At the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry the use of labeled organic compounds was pioneered. The high sensitivity and low risk for 14C-labeled compounds made possible research with human subjects to understand fundamental processes of metabolism and disease not previously accessible. The LLNL spectrometers can measure isotopes from tritium to plutonium, opening new possibilities for forensic research in support of national security. Jay Davis, founding director of CAMS will provide an introduction to the technique and to the research results obtained to date.