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"Nuclear Power and Proliferation Resistance: Securing Benefits, Limiting Risks"
APS/POPA Report (2005)
"Readiness of the US Nuclear Workforce for 21st Century Challenges"
APS POPA Report (2008)
By Tawanda W. Johnson
APS recently filed a petition with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requesting the agency change its licensing rules by including a review of the proliferation risks associated with smaller, more efficient nuclear fuel technologies.
“Growing international concerns surrounding the secret development of nuclear weapons, including incidents in Iran and Pakistan, have raised the importance of this issue. With its petition, APS wants to limit the possibility that other countries might develop similar programs by having the NRC formally assess the proliferation risks of these technologies,” said Francis Slakey, associate director of public affairs for APS.
In its recently released report, Technical Steps to Support Nuclear Downsizing, an APS Study Group found that smaller uranium enrichment technologies could represent proliferation game changers, leading to more efficient methods for production and use of nuclear materials that would be harder to detect. The APS petition cites SILEX (Separation of Isotopes by Laser Excitation) as an example of such a technology. It carries significant proliferation risks because of its small size and low energy use.
NRC Chairman Gregory Jaczko, in a recent National Public Radio interview, commented on SILEX: “It’s a very new technology, or a novel technology…So, I certainly think there may be some things we need to take a look at and make sure we’ve got the right approach to ensuring that kind of protection of the technology and the material.”
The APS petition also states: “Because the NRC will be considering license applications for [enrichment] technologies that will be smaller, more efficient and harder to detect – thus increasing the risk of proliferation – APS considers it timely to request that the NRC rules be amended to formally require non-proliferation assessments as a step in evaluating licenses.”
Carrying out the assessments would be consistent with the NRC’s strategic plan to “assure U.S. and international counterparts that proliferation is being appropriately considered and controlled,” the petition adds.
The APS Study Group is not the first to conclude that advanced nuclear technologies could pose unique proliferation risks. The International Atomic Energy Agency, which conducts weapons inspections for the United Nations, has established a division to oversee improving detection of smaller technologies. The U.S. National Nuclear Security Agency has also established a research and development program to do the same with an emphasis on laser enrichment.
APS has a long and distinguished history of speaking publicly about issues surrounding both nuclear power and nuclear weapons. Its involvement with such issues is appropriate given the central role physicists play in creating nuclear weapons. They also remain involved in the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and the use and development of nuclear power.
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