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Citation: "For his intellectual and experimental leadership in seminal experiments testing charge symmetry and independence, determining fundamental properties of nuclear reactions having cosmological and astrophysical significance, and establishing stringent limits on the mass of the electron antineutrino."
Robertson earned his PhD in nuclear physics from McMaster University in 1971 and received a postdoctoral fellowship at Michigan State University, eventually joining the faculty as a professor of physics. During that time he made the first observation of an isobaric quintet of states in nuclei, and carried out experiments on parity violation and nuclear astrophysics. In 1981 he joined the Los Alamos National Laboratory, where he investigated neutrino mass via tritium beta decay and solar neutrino experiments. In 1994 he became a professor of physics at the University of Washington, where he is continuing his work on neutrinos.
Citation: "For his contributions to elementary particle physics and to education, including the first full reconstruction of a B meson at a hadron collider and development of creative and effective educational programs for under-prepared university students and science outreach programs for Philadelphia schools."
Gladney received his PhD in physics from Stanford University in 1985. He spent the next three years as a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Pennsylvania before joining the faculty there. He is currently an associate professor of physics and astronomy. His research centers on the elucidation of symmetries among the fundamental particles, focusing on the determination of properties of hadrons containing a bottom quark.
Citation: "For his pioneering contributions to atomic and chemical physics, in particular for his development of optical pumping and laser-polarized noble gases whose uses include nuclear targets & magnetic resonance imaging."
Happer received his PhD in physics from Princeton University in 1964 and promptly joined the faculty of Columbia University, where he became a full professor and director of the Columbia Radiation Laboratory. In 1980 he joined the faculty of Princeton University. In 1991 he was appointed Director of Energy Research in the U.S. Department of Energy, returning to Princeton in 1993. He is presently the Eugene Higgins Professor of Physics and Chairman of the University Research Board. Happer is a specialist in modern optics, optical and radiofrequency spectroscopy of atoms and molecules, and spin-polarized atoms and nuclei. He has also had a strong interest in applied physics, serving as a scientific consultant to numerous firms and government agencies, including co-founding Magnetic Imaging Technologies (MITI), which specializes in the use of laser polarized gases for magnetic resonance imaging and microscopy.
Citation: "For his popular columns and books on recreational mathematics which introduced generations of readers to the pleasures and uses of logical thinking; and for his columns and books which exposed pseudoscientific and antiscientific bunk and explained the scientific process to the general public."
Gardner received his BA from the University of Chicago in 1936. His career as a journalist and writer includes stints for the Tulsa Tribune, public relations staffer for the University of Chicago, contributing editor to Humpty Dumpty magazine from 1952 to 1962, and serving as a writer for the mathematics games department for Scientific American. His skill in combining mathematics, science, philosophy and literature has produced more than 30 books, including In the Name of Science, an entertaining account of cults and fad sciences in numerous fields. His avocational interests include magic, chess, and playing the musical saw.
Citation: "For his pioneering contributions to the field of particle-cosmology, particularly the exploration of non-baryonic dark matter, and for his ability to communicate the excitement of the field."
Turner received his PhD in physics from Stanford University in 1978 and currently holds appointments at the University of Chicago as a professor of physics and of astronomy and astrophysics. He is also a staff scientist at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. His research concerns the earliest history of the universe and the application of elementary particle theory to cosmology.
Citation: "For her pioneering work in experimental ultrafast optical physics, including the development of sophisticated ultrafast techniques in both x-ray and visible regions of the spectrum. Her work has opened up a new field of high density, high-temperature plasmas created by ultrashort laser pulses."
Murnane received her PhD from the University of California, Berkeley, where she remained for a one-year postdoctoral program before joining the faculty at Washington State University in 1990. In 1996 she and her husband joined the faculty of the University of Michigan and the NSF Center for Ultrafast Optical Science. A past recipient of the APS Simon Ramo Award, Murnane's work has been part of a revolution in ultrafast phenomena. Visible and x-ray pulses can now be simply and reliably generated, and powerful new techniques have been developed for obtaining accurate information on the exact shape of ultrashort pulses. Together with her husband and a team of students, she is developing the next generation of intense lasers for efficient x-ray generation, laser- based particle acceleration, and to explore previously inaccessible extreme states of matter.
Citation: "For his courageous struggle for democracy and human rights in China over the past four decades; for his continued commitment to teaching and his outstanding leadership in physics research despite difficult circumstances; and for his continuing support and dedication to students, colleagues, and those fighting for human rights."
A native of Beijing, China, Li-Zhi received his diploma from Beijing University in 1956 and immediately joined the Chinese nuclear project as a junior researcher. He was dismissed for speaking out in favor of freedom of thought and expression and transferred to the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC). During the Cultural Revolution (1966 to 1976), he was sentenced to hard labor in the coal mines, but returned to USTC, becoming vice president in 1984. He was dismissed in 1986 for supporting the student democratic movement and moved to the Beijing Astronomical Observatory.
Following the massacre in Tiananmen Square in 1989, Li-Zhi sought refuge in the U.S. Embassy in Beijing. He left China in 1990, and has been a professor of physics and astronomy at the University of Arizona since 1992. His research has covered nuclear physics, laser physics and numerous topics in theoretical astrophysics and cosmology. He has served on many scientific committees and human rights organizations.
Citation: "For their leading role in the first demonstration of mixing in the BO-BO system. The unexpectedly large value of the mixing parameter provided indirect evidence for a large top quark mass and has greatly enhanced the possibility for studying CP violation in B meson decays. This capability has encouraged a worldwide effort to determine whether the small CP violation in K decay is a reflection of a fundamental parameter characterizing transitions of quarks among the three generations."
Zaitsev graduated from Moscow Engineering Physical Institute in 1960 and earned his PhD in 1968. He has spent most of his career working at the ITEP facility in Moscow, and is also a professor at the Moscow Physical Technical Institute. He has participated in experiments on high-energy particle interactions with nuclei, backward particle production in proton-nuclei interactions, and on the DASP II collaboration. At DESY in Germany, he led the design, creation and operation of muon systems for the ARGUS detector. He is currently working on the HERA-B collaboration as a coordinator of muon systems.
Schr"der received his PhD in 1973 from the University of Freiburg, Germany, where he served as a scientific assistant until 1976, and as a postdoctoral fellow at the MPI fur Kernphysik in Heidelberg. Since 1977 he has been a staff member at DESY, and also teaches at the University of Dortmund and the University of Rostock. His early work was in light nuclei and hypernuclei, and he held a leading position with DESY's ARGUS collaboration, investigating quark decays. He is now a member of the HERA-B experiment to study CP violation in beta decays.
Citation: "For achieving Bose-Einstein condensation of an atomic gas, for creating techniques for studying the Bose condensation, and for measuring the physical properties of the weakly interacting atomic Bose gas."
Cornell received his PhD from MIT in 1990, researching precision mass spectroscopy of single trapped molecular ions. He went to JILA at the University of Colorado in Boulder in 1990 and since 1992 has been a staff scientist with the National Institute of Standards and Technology. His research interests center around various aspects of laser cooling, including Bose-Einstein condensation and an experiment on atoms guided by optical forces inside hollow glass fibers. He is also attempting to realize laser cooling in the solid state.
A native of Germany, Ketterle received his PhD from the University of Munich in 1986. He did postdoctoral research in molecular spectroscopy at the Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics in Garching, and in combustion diagnostics in Heidelberg, before joining the faculty of MIT in 1990. His research is in atomic physics and laser spectroscopy, working on novel methods to slow, cool and trap atoms in order to explore novel aspects of ultra cold atomic matter. Since the realization of Bose-Einstein condensation, he has focused on the study of quantum-degenerate gases and the development of an "atom laser."
Citation: "For his research contributions in lasers and atomic physics, fundamental symmetries, and nonlinear dynamics, and for his leadership and energy in guiding Amherst College students in his research programs."
Hilborn received his PhD from Harvard University in 1971. Following a two-year postdoctoral position at the State University of New York at Stony Brook, he taught physics for 13 years at Oberlin College. In 1986 he moved to Amherst College, where he is currently the Amanda and Lisa Cross Professor of Physics. He is a former president of the American Association for Physics Teachers and has served on the APS Council and the AIP Governing Board. In addition, he authored Chaos and Nonlinear Dynamics: An Introduction for Scientists and Engineers, which was recognized by Choice magazine as one of the outstanding academic books of 1995.
Citation: "For his pioneering work on charmonium and on the decoupling of heavy particles." Applequist received his PhD from Cornell University in 1968 and held a two-year postdoctoral fellowship at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center before joining the faculty of Harvard University in 1970. In 1975 he moved to Yale University, where he is currently the Eugene Higgins Professor of Physics and Dean of the Graduate School. His research has focused on the theory of elementary particles, including the strong interactions and electroweak unification. His most recent interests have dealt with dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking and the origin of the quark and lepton masses.
Citation: "For proposing and working to keep on track the historic agreement for the U.S. to purchase uranium from the former Soviet Union weapons stockpile and to transform it from highly enriched uranium to low-enriched uranium for civilian purposes, thereby significantly reducing the number of nuclear weapons."
Neff received his PhD in theoretical physics from Stanford University in 1973 and held several postdoctoral positions. He then served as a senior staff member of the Ford Foundation's study of nuclear power and nonproliferation issues. He served as manager and director of MIT's International Energy Studies Program. For more than five years he helped implement the "swords into plowshares" deal between the two countries. He is also currently involved in defense conversion activities with major weapons production facilities in the former Soviet Union. In the U.S. he has served as advisor to the Department of State, the Department of Energy, and the Executive Office of the President.
Citation: "For being a dedicated mentor and guide to a whole generation of Latin American physicists and playing a decisive role in the development of physics in Latin America. By example, enthusiasm, and very exacting standards he has inspired a respect for excellence and collegiality which now motivates many groups throughout Latin America."
A native of Spain, Cardona received his PhD in applied physics from Harvard University in 1959, and subsequently worked for RCA Laboratories in both Zurich, Switzerland and Princeton, New Jersey. He joined the faculty of Brown University in 1964, and has been affiliated with the Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research at Stuttgart, Germany, since 1991. A past recipient of the APS Frank Isakson Prize, Cardona's present research interests include high temperature superconductors, as well as isotopically modified crystals and the optical properties of semiconductor nanostructures. He has been active in many scientific societies internationally, and has served on the board of editors of seven scientific journals.
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