APS March Meeting 2017

Focus Topic Descriptions, 13.1.1 to 24.1.2

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13: SUPERLATTICES, NANOSTRUCTURES, AND OTHER ARTIFICIALLY STRUCTURED MATERIALS (DCMP/DMP)

13.1.1: Nanostructures and Metamaterials (DMP)

Recent experimental, theoretical and computational advances have enabled the design and realization of nanostructured materials with novel, complex and often unusual electromagnetic properties unattainable in natural materials. Such nanostructures and metamaterials provide unique opportunities to manipulate electromagnetic radiation over a broad range of frequencies, from the ultraviolet and visible to terahertz and microwave. This focus topic will highlight recent progress in the physical understanding, design, fabrication, and applications of these man-made materials. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to: nanophotonics, plasmonics, near field and quantum optics, opto-fluidics, energy harvesting, and the emerging interface of condensed matter and materials physics with the biological and neuro sciences.

Organizers: Jacob Khurgin (Johns Hopkins University), Andra Aiu (University of Texas, Austin)

13.1.2: Electron, exciton and heat transport in nanostructures (DMP)

Understanding and controlling how heat, charge, and energy flow at the nanoscale is critical for realizing the potential of nanomaterials in next generation device technologies. Of particular challenge, and opportunity, is understanding how elementary excitations such as phonons, electrons, holes, excitons, and plasmons interact with each other and are influenced by interfaces, confinement, and quantum effects in nanostructures. This is particularly true for heterogeneous nanoscale materials and interfaces with varying degrees of electronic and phononic couplings, and distinct thermal and electrical impedances. Structural components used in hybrid nanostructures can be made of semiconductors, metals, molecules, liquids, etc.

Contributions are solicited in areas that reflect recent advances in experimental measurement, theory, and modeling of transport mechanisms in nanoscale materials and interfaces. Specific topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

  • Electron-phonon coupling and heat generation by hot charge carriers
  • Dynamics of energy and charge flow in nanostructured hybrid materials
  • Ultrafast dynamics of charge carriers, excitons and phonons in nanostructures and across nanoscale interfaces
  • Charge, heat, and exciton transport through metal-semiconductor interfaces
  • Non-equilibrium heat transport and phonon-bottlenecks effects
  • Nanostructuring and reduced dimensionality for tailoring heat and charge transport
  • Energy transfer in hybrid nanomaterials including dots, wires, plates, polymers, etc
  • Excitonic nanomaterials with light-harvesting and lighting properties utilizing both solid-state and molecular components
  • Plasmonic nano- and meta-structures for light harvesting and concentration
  • Hybrid structures with interacting exciton and plasmon resonances
  • Hybrid nanomaterials for photo-catalytic applications utilizing excitons and plasmons

Organizers: Maria Chan (Argonne National Laboratory), Richard Schaller (Argonne National Laboratory), Jonathan Malen (Carnegie Mellon University)

13.1.3: Complex Oxide Interfaces and Heterostructures (DMP)

The intricate interactions between the electronic and structural degrees of freedom make complex oxides one of the most exciting fields of research. When these oxides are prepared in the form of thin films and heterostructures, they exhibit additional properties that cannot be realized in the constituent materials alone. These novel properties arise as a result of interfacial charge transfer, exchange coupling, orbital reconstructions, proximity effects, dimensionality and modifications to local atomic coordination. Emergent electronic and magnetic states at oxide interfaces raise exciting prospects for discovery of new fundamental physics and technological applications. This Focus Topic is dedicated to the progress in the knowledge, methodologies and tools in the field of complex oxide thin films, heterostructures, superlattices, and nanostructures, also with respect to the competition/coexistence with a rich variety of other physical properties. Synthesis, characterization, theory, and novel device physics are emphasized. Specific areas of interest include, but are not limited to, growth of oxide thin films and heterostructures, formation of two-dimension electron gases, control of their magnetic properties and ordering, interfacial superconductivity, magnetotransport, strong spin-orbit coupling effects, magnetoelectric phenomena, coupling of atomic and magnetic structures, and recent developments in theoretical prediction and materials-by-design approaches. Advances in techniques to probe and image electronic, structural and magnetic states at heterostructure interfaces, including but not limited to scanning probes, optical, electron, neutron, and synchrotron-based techniques are also emphasized. Note that overlap exists with other DMP and GMAG focus sessions. As a rule of thumb, if complex oxides and their heterostructures are the core of the investigation, then the talk is appropriate for this focus topic.

Organizers: Anand Bhattacharya (Argonne National Laboratory), Ryan Comes (Auburn University), Anderson Janotti (University of Delaware

13.1.4: Thermoelectric phenomena, materials, devices (DMP)

Thermoelectrics for solid-state power conversion and refrigeration applications continues to be of great interest as new materials and transport phenomena are being discovered. The physics of materials and the associated charge carrier, spin, photon, and phonon transport is of particular interest. This focus topic addresses the latest developments in state of the art materials and novel phenomena, including theory, synthesis, characterization, processing, mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties. These sessions will also highlight the latest application advances in waste heat recovery, high efficiency refrigeration, and how the field can lead to new advances in fundamental condensed-matter physics. Experimental, theoretical, and application and device-related contributions are solicited.

Organizers: George Nolas (University of Southern Florida), and Stefano Curatolo (Duke University)

14: SURFACES, INTERFACES AND THIN FILMS (DCMP)

14.1.1: Surface Science of Organic Molecular Solids, Films, and Nanostructures (DMP)

Organic molecular solids are a challenging materials class since numerous "weak" interactions, all of comparable strength, control structures and functional properties. The promise of high performance optoelectronics, designer sensors, electrode work function control, and bioelectronic devices make the payoff for addressing this challenge high. Moreover, there is great scientific value in addressing complex systems with hierarchical interactions and a strong tension between localized and delocalized phenomenon such as found in organic molecular solids. This Focus Topic will bring together Surface Scientists to report and discuss new experimental and theoretical/computational results aimed at the basic physics underpinning this material class. Research of interest includes the structure, properties, and applications of organic adsorbates, monolayer assemblies, thin films, crystals and nanostructures.

Organizers: Brad Conrad (Appalacian State University), Pengpeng Zhang (Michigan State University), Kristen Burson (Hamilton College), Dan Dougherty (North Carolina State University), Ted Einstein (University of Maryland)

14.1.2: First-Principles Modeling of Excited-State Phenomena in Materials (DCOMP/DCP/DMP) [same as 5.1.6 and 16.1.6]

This Focus Topic is dedicated to recent advances in many-body perturbation theory and electron-ion dynamics methods: Challenges, scalable implementations in electronic structure codes, and applications to functional materials, interfaces, molecules, and nano-structures are of interest. It aims to attract researchers working on the nexus of electronic and optical properties of materials, hot electron dynamics, and device physics (e.g., transistors, light emitting diodes, solar cells, and photo-electrochemical cells). A proper description of electronic excitations requires theoretical approaches that go beyond ground state density functional theory (DFT), such as Green's function based many-body perturbation theory methods (e.g., RPA, GW, and BSE), or Ehrenfest dynamics and surface-hopping schemes (e.g., based on time-dependent DFT).

Phenomena, processes, and properties of interest include ionization potentials and electron affinities, optical spectra and exciton binding energies, electron-phonon coupling, charge transition levels, and energy level alignment at interfaces, transition between excited states, energy transfer to the lattice, etc.

Organizers: Noa Marom (Carnegie Mellon University, Andre Schleife (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign), Volker Blum (Duke University), Emmanouil Kioupakis (University of Michigan)

16: GENERAL THEORY/COMPUTATIONAL PHYSICS (DCOMP)

16.1.1: Computational Discovery and Design of New Materials (DMP/DCOMP) [same as 12.1.7]

Advances in algorithms, computational power, and the ability to predictively model physical phenomena are spurring the computational discovery and design of novel materials, allowing for virtual materials synthesis and characterization before their realization in the laboratory. This focus topic will cover studies at the frontier of computational materials discovery and design, ranging from quantum-level prediction to macro-scale property optimization. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to: Computational materials design and discovery, high-throughput computation and automatized data analysis, computational materials databases, materials informatics, data mining, machine learning, global structure and property optimizations, algorithms for searching the structure/composition space, first principles property prediction, methods for uncertainty quantification, improved accuracy or efficiency, and computational modeling of materials synthesis. Of particular interest are contributions that apply novel data/computation-intensive approaches to materials design, that feature a strong connection to experiment, and those that translate physical insights gained from computation into advanced materials by design. The application focus broadly covers electronic materials, ranging from low-power electronics (Mottronics), energy conversion and storage materials (thermoelectrics, batteries, fuel cells, photocatalysts, photovoltaics), to novel materials for non-linear optics and data processing (spintronics).

Organizers: Richard Hennig (University of Florida), Vladan Stevanovic (Colorado School of Mines), Artem Oganov (Stonybrook University), Gus Hart (Brigham Young University)

16.1.2: Novel Chemistry under Extreme Conditions (DCOMP/DCP/GSCCM(SHOCK) [same as 5.1.7]

High-pressure often leads to unusual states of matter, expressed as novel structures, unexpected metal-insulator transitions, superconductivity etc. Recently, a series of computational and experimental studies show that materials can undergo changes at a fundamental level and form unusual chemical compounds. For example, electrons may detach from all nuclei and occupy interstitial sites, forming electrides; also what might have been thought as core levels or unfilled orbitals might be involved in forming covalent and ionic bonds under pressure. Characteristic of progress in this area is the close interaction of theory and experiment. Although some compounds predicted with unusual stoichiometry have recently been attained by static high-pressure experiments, many novel compounds are still awaiting experimental discovery.

The Focus Topic will open the opportunity to concurrently present and discuss the recent new chemistry and physics emerging under high pressure. It will include but not be limited to the following topics: (1) synthesis and prediction of novel compounds with atypical or unusual compositions under pressure; (2) the observation and prediction of high pressure electrides and the mechanism of their formation; (3) the role of inner shell and outer shell orbitals and electrons in high pressure chemistry; (4) the reactivity of noble gas elements under pressure; (5) emerging physics in new compounds such as the topological insulating state and superconductivity.

Organizers: Maosheng Miao (California State University, Northridge), Russell Hemley (Carnegie Institute of Washington)

16.1.3: Theory and Simulation of Fiber-Based Materials (DCOMP/DMP/DPOLY) [same as 1.1.22]

Fibers are the basic blocks of a wide range of synthetic and natural materials. While the physical behavior of isolated fibers is well-developed, the collective structure and emergent behaviors of fiber-based materials are less understood. The theory and simulation of these materials is a cross-disciplinary area of research, with computational methods spanning atomistic, mesoscopic, and continuum scales. It is actively being pursued in multiple areas of science, including materials science and polymer physics. This Focus Topic brings together researchers working in these areas to develop synergies and to further the theory and simulation of fiber-based materials in an interconnected manner.

Organizers: Traian Dumitrica (University of Minnesota), Catalin Picu (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute), Gregory Grason (University of Massachusetts)

16.1.4: Computational Physics at the Petascale and Beyond (DCOMP/DMP/DCMP/DCP/DBIO) [same as 5.1.10 and 4.1.26]

On July 29, 2015, the President signed an Executive Order creating the National Strategic Computing Initiative (NSCI) with a goal of enabling high performance computing (HPC) capable of performing 1018 floating-point operations per second (“exascale”), as well as integrating large-scale data opportunities associated with experiment, observation, and simulation science. This focus session will bring together researchers in computational materials, computational chemistry, and computational biophysics with experience in the effective utilization of high-performance data and compute infrastructure, including supercomputers, communication networks, and data resources to achieve breakthrough results. We intend for this session to highlight strong examples of the state-of-the-art in computational science today leveraging large, national-scale infrastructure. The talks will highlight science results as well as opportunities and challenges in using energy-efficient, pre-exascale HPC systems.

Organizers: Jack C. Wells (Oak Ridge National Laboratory), Nichols A. Romero (Argonne National Laboratory), Jack Deslippe (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory), Barry Schneider (National Institute for Standards and Technology)

16.1.5: Electrons, Phonons and Electron-Phonon Scattering (DCOMP)

Electron-phonon interactions play a central role in many phenomena, most classically the resistivity of metals at ordinary temperatures, and are important for electrical and thermal conductivity of thermoelectrics, the temperature dependence of the optical band gaps of semiconductors, and other phenomena such as phonon drag. This focus topic covers electron-phonon interactions emphasizing fundamental physics, direct computation, first principles and phenomenological theory, optical and phonon spectroscopy and novel effects in nanostructures, nanodevices, 2D materials, and bulk materials. This focus topic also includes the emerging area of phononics, in particular manipulating phonon eigenstates or coherent superpositions, e.g. for logical operations or to manipulate sound or heat in unconventional ways.

Organizers: David Singh (University of Missouri), Matthieu Verstraete (University of Liège)

16.1.6: First-Principles Modeling of Excited-State Phenomena in Materials (DCOMP/DCP/DMP) [same as 5.1.6 and 14.1.2]

This Focus Topic is dedicated to recent advances in many-body perturbation theory and electron-ion dynamics methods: Challenges, scalable implementations in electronic structure codes, and applications to functional materials, interfaces, molecules, and nano-structures are of interest. It aims to attract researchers working on the nexus of electronic and optical properties of materials, hot electron dynamics, and device physics (e.g., transistors, light emitting diodes, solar cells, and photo-electrochemical cells). A proper description of electronic excitations requires theoretical approaches that go beyond ground state density functional theory (DFT), such as Green's function based many-body perturbation theory methods (e.g., RPA, GW, and BSE), or Ehrenfest dynamics and surface-hopping schemes (e.g., based on time-dependent DFT).

Phenomena, processes, and properties of interest include ionization potentials and electron affinities, optical spectra and exciton binding energies, electron-phonon coupling, charge transition levels, and energy level alignment at interfaces, transition between excited states, energy transfer to the lattice, etc.

Organizers: Noa Marom (Carnegie Mellon University, Andre Schleife (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign), Volker Blum (Duke University), Emmanouil Kioupakis (University of Michigan)

16.1.7: Materials in Extremes: Bridging Simulation and Experiment (DCOMP/DMP/GSCCM(SHOCK)) [same as 18.1.1]

The behavior of matter under extreme conditions of high pressure, temperature, strain and strain rate is of fundamental scientific importance. Geophysical processes in the core of the Earth and other planets, matter withstanding hypervelocity impacts of comets, shock wave compression of materials, detonation of explosives, high pressure and high temperature synthesis of novel materials, failure of materials reaching their intrinsic limit of performance, all require an understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of materials response at the atomic, microstructural, and continuum levels. Recent advances in theory and modeling, due to enormous increase in computer power combined with new computational techniques, have made it possible to extend simulations to the time and length scales of the experiments.

This Focus Topic, consisting of several sessions with invited and contributed talks, will assess recent experimental and computational efforts towards exploring the fundamental properties of materials at extreme conditions, including (1) high-pressure and high temperature synthesis and characterization of materials; (2) static and shock-induced materials behavior, including plasticity, phase transitions, and chemical reactions; (3) high strain rate phenomena occurring upon ultrafast energy deposition; (4) static and dynamic properties of energetic materials, including detonation phenomena; (5) properties of matter in the warm dense regime; and (6) new computational methods including development of interatomic potentials and multi-scale simulations.

Organizers: Ivan Oleynik (University of South Florida), Anatoly Belonoshko (Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden), Ricky Chau (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory), Timothy Germann (Los Alamos National Laboratory)

16.1.8: Explicitly Correlated Methods and Quantum Few-Body Systems (DCOMP/DAMOP) [same as 6.1.6]

Computational methods tackling the difficult problem of describing correlated motion of interacting quantum particles by employing explicitly correlated wavefunctions have had a tremendous success in the last two decades. Explicitly correlated approaches have a wide range of applications in physics and chemistry and provide a very powerful tool to solve quantum few-body problem with various types of interparticle interaction. There is a significant interest in expanding the applicability of such methods to new areas and problems. The purpose of this focus session is to survey recent research activity in the field and provide a much needed forum for physicists and chemists, share experience, and discuss many theoretical and computational issues.

Contributions spanning relevant theoretical developments and applications of the explicitly correlated methods will be solicited in the following areas:

  • Atomic and molecular physics
  • Ultracold systems, Efimov states, universal few-body physics
  • Quantum chemistry (including R12/F12 methods)
  • Few-body systems in condensed matter (quantum dots, biexitons, etc)
  • Systems containing positrons and other exotic particles
  • Scattering problems

Organizers: Sergiy Bubin (Nazarbayev University, Kazakhstan), Kalman Varga (Vanderbilt University)

16.1.9: Advances in Quantum Simulation (GQI/DAMOP/DCOMP) [same as 17.1.4]

The simulation of complex quantum systems is known to be tremendously difficult for classical computers. Degrees of freedom involved in quantum dynamics increase exponentially with the size of the system, saturating classical capabilities even for modest size. However, the behavior of a complex quantum system can be efficiently emulated in an analog or a digital manner with the use of artificial quantum platforms that allow control over the simulation parameters. Such experimental platforms have recently emerged in fields such as superconducting qubits, cold atoms or ion traps. Quantum simulation promises to have applications in the study of many problems ranging from condensed-matter, quantum chemistry to high- energy physics. The purpose of this focus session is to review recent advances in quantum simulation both theoretically and experimentally across various platforms.

Organizers:Phil Richerme (Indiana) & Emmanuel Flurin (Berkeley)

16.1.10: Gamification and other novel approaches in quantum physics outreach (GQI/FOEP/DCOMP) [same as 17.1.10]

The last couple of years have seen the release and development of several computer games based on the basic principles of quantum mechanics. These games are variously aimed at outreach, education, and crowd-sourcing research. The aim of this session is to bring these games to the attention of a wider audience of physicists and discuss the challenges, successes and failures of using this medium to promote public understanding of and involvement in quantum physics research. It will also address related innovations, such as interactive demonstrations and online educational resources.

Organizer: Matt Leifer (Chapman U)

16.1.11: Advances and Applications of Numerical Methods in Cold Quantum Gases (DAMOP/DCOMP) [same as 6.1.5]

Developments in experiments with cold quantum gases have been complemented by rapid expansion and new applications of numerical methods for both equilibrium states and time-dependent dynamics in these strongly interacting systems. This includes advances in Monte-Carlo methods for equilibrium and non-equilibrium physics, the development of density matrix renomalization group and tensor network techniques in 1D and 2D, new applications and developments with dynamical mean-field theory, and a variety of new applications of phase-space and mean-field methods for dynamics. These advances have especially begun to give new insights into strongly interacting Fermi gases and systems with long-range interactions, as well as both coherent and dissipative out-of-equilibrium dynamics in a broad range of contexts.

Organizer: Vito Scarola (Virginia Tech)

16.1.12: Inferring Dynamical Models of Biological Systems from Data (DBIO/DCOMP) [same as 3.1.14]

For inanimate systems, it’s often not that hard to write down the equations describing the underlying dynamics using the first principles (solving them, of course, is much harder). For biological systems, microscopic first-principles based descriptions are too unwieldy, and macroscopic, phenomenological laws are few and far between. There’s a growing body of literature focused on “guessing” such phenomenological laws directly from data. (Parenthetically, the same is true for many other complex systems, such as various social systems, as has been seen in the burgeoning field of econophysics.) This session will be a venue for sharing new results on inferences of dynamical models of biological systems from data, focusing on multitude of scales from cellular networks, to ecology. The focus will be on domain discoveries, and not on methods development.

Organizer: I. Nemenman (Emory University)

16.1.13: Dielectric and Ferroic Oxides (DMP/DCOMP) [same as 7.1.1, 11.1.1]

Complex oxides exhibit a rich variety of order parameters, such as polarization, magnetization, strain, charge and orbital degrees of freedom. The vast range of functional properties that emerge from their mutual coupling (e.g., ferroelectricity, magnetoelectricity, multiferroicity, metal-insulator transitions, defect-related properties) are the main topics of interest for this symposium. Examples of current grand challenges include:

  1. Novel mechanisms to break inversion symmetry in heterostructures and layered oxides.
  2. Viable routes to achieve a strong coupling between polarization and ferromagnetism at room temperature.
  3. Band-filling and bandwidth control in complex oxides (a prerequisite to harnessing charge/orbital order, magnetic transitions and metal insulator transitions).
  4. Electric- or magnetic-field control of these phenomena - a very exciting prospect for both fundamental science and technology. (v) Structure and properties of magnetoelectric domains and domain walls of these materials.
  5. Emerging avenues to controlling polarization, magnetism and electronic properties via strain and/or strain gradients and/or defects. Breakthroughs and progress in the theory, synthesis, characterization, and device implementations in these and other related topics are solicited for this Focus Topic.

Organizers: Guangyong Xu (Brookhaven National Laboratory), Eric Cockayne (National Institute of Standards and Technology), Hiroki Taniguchi (Nagoya University)

16.1.14: Dopants and Defects in Semiconductors (DMP) [same as 8.1.2]

Impurities and native defects profoundly affect the electronic and optical properties of semiconductor materials. Incorporation of impurities is nearly always a necessary step for tuning the electrical properties in semiconductors. In some cases, as in dilute III-V alloys, impurities even modify the band gap. Defects control carrier concentration, mobility, lifetime, and recombination; they are also responsible for the mass-transport processes involved in migration, diffusion, and precipitation of impurities and host atoms. The control of impurities and defects is the critical factor that enables a semiconductor to be engineered for use in electronic and optoelectronic devices as has been widely recognized in the remarkable development of Si-based electronics, the current success of GaN-based blue LED and lasers, the development of semiconducting oxides for transparent conducting displays, and the promise of next-generation sensors and computing based on individual defects like the NV center in diamond. The fundamental understanding, characterization and control of defects and impurities are essential for the development of new devices, such as those based on novel wide-band gap semiconductors, spintronic materials, and lowdimensional structures.

The physics of dopants and defects in semiconductors, from the bulk to the nanoscale, including surfaces and interfaces, is the subject of this focus topic. Abstracts on experimental and theoretical investigations are solicited in areas of interest that include: the electronic, structural, optical, and magnetic properties of impurities and defects in elemental and compound semiconductors, SiO2 and alternative dielectrics, wide band-gap materials such as diamond including NV centers, SiC, group-III nitrides, two-dimensional materials including phosphorus and BN, oxide semiconductors, and the emerging organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite (e.g., MAPbI3) solar cell materials are of interest. Likewise welcomed are abstracts on specific materials challenges involving defects, e.g., in processing, characterization, property determination, including imaging and various new nanoscale probes.

Organizers: Paul Koenraad (Eindhoven University of Technology), Joel Varley (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory)

16.1.15: Fe-based Superconductors (DMP/DCOMP) [same as 9.1.1]

Substantial experimental and theoretical progress has been made toward understanding the unusual normal and superconducting-state properties of the iron-based superconductors (IBS). However, many challenges and controversies remain, driven by discoveries of new or improved materials whose properties differ radically from those of the previous generation. Among the current challenges in the IBS: understanding the intricate interplay between spin and orbital degrees of freedom, and their consequences for the elastic, normal, and superconducting-state properties; the role of quantum criticality; the nature of the parent phase, and the role of interactions and electronic structure in defining such a phase; the normal and superconducting-state properties of materials with only hole or electron-pockets, in particular FeSe thin films grown over various types of substrates; mechanisms for nematicity without long-range magnetic order, or magnetism without nematic order; new materials based on intercalation, and in particular, recent efforts on FeSe-based systems. This Focus Topic will cover the latest experimental and theoretical issues pertaining to both normal and superconducting properties of IBS, covering both pnictide and chalcogenide materials. By better understanding how the different crystalline, magnetic and electronic structures in the distinct families of IBS relate to each other and to other unconventional superconducting and heavy fermion materials, such as the cuprates and the intermetallic 115’s; the goal is to enhance the potential for discovering new superconducting systems with higher Tc's.

Organizers: (1) Chris Stock (University of Edinburgh), Chris Homes (Brookhaven National Laboratory), Rafael Fernandes (University of Minnesota)

16.1.16: 2D materials: semiconductors (DMP/DCOMP) [same as 12.1.2]

Research exploring 2D semiconductors and their heterostructures are rapidly expanding to include a wide variety of layered material systems with diverse properties, including strong many body interactions, strong spin-orbit coupling effects, spin- and valley-dependent physics, and topological physics etc. This Focus Topic will cover experimental and theoretical/computational work related to 2D semiconductors and their heterostructures, including large bandgap materials such as many chalcogenides (e.g., MoS2, WSe2, GaSe ReSe, etc.), phosphorene and h-BN, small bandgap materials with possible topological effects (such as silicene, germanene, stanene, and Bi2Se3 etc.), and magnetic semiconductors (e.g. CrGeTe3, Mn:MoS2, etc.). Important areas related to monolayers, few-layers and heterostructures include quantum transport properties, mobility engineering, spin- and valley-dependent phenomena, 2D exciton physics, defect engineering on optical and electronic properties, understanding the role of the dielectric environment, many-body effects, magnetic properties, and thermal and mechanical properties.

Organizers: Roland Kawakami (Ohio State University), Kin Fai Mak (Penn State University) Feng Liu (University of Utah)

16.1.17: Van der Waals bonding in advanced materials (DMP/DCOMP) [same as 12.1.6]

Whether binding organic components together, facilitating physisorption or modifying molecular chemisorption processes, van der Waals interactions are vital to structure, stability and function. They are ubiquitous in organic, inorganic, polymeric, and biological systems and play a fundamental role in defining underlying physical and chemical properties. There is no disputing the existence of van der Waals forces, yet our fundamental grasp of their impact on materials properties is still poor. While these forces are typically weaker than the internal (covalent) bonds that hold a molecule together, they still span a few orders of magnitude and thus present a unique challenge to both theory and experiment. This focus session aims to bring together theorists and experimentalists from a wide range of disciplines to discuss the key challenges and recent progress in the synthesis, characterization, and design of van der Waals bonded complexes and materials. The goal is to share new insights into how non-covalent interactions result in novel physical phenomena in these materials.

Organizers: Leeor Kronik (Weizmann Institute of Science), Valentino Cooper (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)

17: QUANTUM INFORMATION (GQI)

17.1.1: Novel approaches to quantum measurement in microwave circuits

Nonreciprocal transport and directional amplification of weak microwave signals are fundamental ingredients in performing sensitive measurements of the quantum state in superconducting circuits. This focus topic will explore the use of novel approaches such as parametric coupling techniques, to integrate functionality of circulators/isolators and amplifiers and thereby overcome the limitations of current microwave components. The topic will include theoretical proposals and experimental demonstrations for, e.g., multi-mode parametric amplification techniques, emphasizing simultaneous achievement of desirable features and tight integration with existing superconducting circuits.

Organizers: Jose Aumentado (NIST Boulder) & Michel Devoret (Yale)

17.1.2: Engineering parametric interactions for control of superconducting circuits

Parametric interactions offer an exciting route to extend the capabilities of superconducting circuits, promising novel ways to process quantum information, to implement quantum simulation and also potentially allowing access to the regime of microwave optics experiments. In particular, efforts are currently underway to use these methods to manipulate single microwave photons, implement high- fidelity gates between qubits with vastly different frequencies, and synthesize tailored Hamiltonians for quantum simulation with artificial spins. This session will highlight recent progress as well as explore future research directions by leading groups in the field.

Organizers: Ray Simmonds (NIST Boulder) & Alexandre Blais (U Sherbrooke) & David Schuster (U Chicago)

17.1.3: Small-scale quantum computers: Current state-of-the-art and applications

Recent years have seen tremendous progress in design and construction of small-scale quantum computing architectures ranging from digital devices with tens of qubits built from superconducting materials or ultracold atomic gases, to special-purpose analog quantum annealers with hundreds of qubits. Yet the extent to which current or near-term quantum computing architectures can outperform classical counterparts is still generally unclear. This focus topic addresses the leading question: "What can we currently do with a quantum computing architecture with 10 - 1000 qubits?", given this challenge of demonstrating quantum supremacy. The topic will bring together theoretical and experimental perspectives and proposals, with emphasis on design of experimental tests of quantum supremacy in small-scale systems and on discussion of real-world problems of interest suitable for study with limited-size quantum architectures.

Organizers: Machiel Blok (Berkeley) & Helmut Katzgraber (Texas &M)

17.1.4: Advances in quantum simulation (GQI/DAMOP/DCOMP) [same as 6.1.7 and 16.1.9]

The simulation of complex quantum systems is known to be tremendously difficult for classical computers. Degrees of freedom involved in quantum dynamics increase exponentially with the size of the system, saturating classical capabilities even for modest size. However, the behavior of a complex quantum system can be efficiently emulated in an analog or a digital manner with the use of artificial quantum platforms that allow control over the simulation parameters. Such experimental platforms have recently emerged in fields such as superconducting qubits, cold atoms or ion traps. Quantum simulation promises to have applications in the study of many problems ranging from condensed-matter, quantum chemistry to high- energy physics. The purpose of this focus session is to review recent advances in quantum simulation both theoretically and experimentally across various platforms.

Organizers:Phil Richerme (Indiana) & Emmanuel Flurin (Berkeley)

17.1.5: Continuous measurements and quantum foundations

Recent years have witnessed the rapid development of quantum technologies that have enabled unprecedented control of quantum systems. In addition to high-fidelity unitary operations and arbitrary strength impulsive measurements, continuous measurements in time are now also possible, with tunable information collection rates. These newly available experimental tools have catalyzed an increased need for a better theoretical understanding of the core foundational principles of quantum mechanics. Foundational issues, such as contextuality, nonlocality, operational symmetries, reference frames, and epistemic approaches to understanding the quantum state, are becoming increasingly important. This focus topic explores the latest key developments in the two fields of continuous quantum measurement and quantum foundations.

Organizers: Justin Dressel (Chapman U) & Kater Murch (Washington St. Louis)

17.1.6: Non-equilibrium thermodynamics and quantum information (GSNP/GQI)

Nanoscale systems are susceptible to severe thermal fluctuations because of their small size. Recent developments in the field of stochastic thermodynamics have shown that despite this, the concepts of heat, entropy, free energy, and entropy production can be meaningfully introduced to characterize the dynamics, and a variety of exact, analytical relations have been derived. While these studies have led to a detailed understanding of the non-equilibrium dynamics of classical systems, much remains to be done in extending fluctuation theorems and stochastic thermodynamics to quantum mechanical systems. This focus topic will address the extension of fluctuation theorems and stochastic thermodynamics to quantum systems that operate far from thermal equilibrium and that process information, building links between the field of quantum information and non- equilibrium thermodynamics.

Organizers: Sebastian Deffner (U Maryland, BC) & Dibyendu Mandal (Berkeley)

17.1.7: Quantum Shannon theory and remote communication

Quantum Shannon theory is arguably at the theoretical core of the physics of information, in which various capacities of quantum communication channels are developed and studied. There are a rich variety of capacities of a quantum communication channel, including those for the transmission of classical data, private data, quantum data, locked data, and hidden data. This session will explore these capacities, their interrelations, and others, with the aim of pushing forward this field, in directions such as error exponents, strong converse exponents, and second-order asymptotics. At the same time, an important objective is to branch out to other areas of physics, including but not limited to the resource theories of thermodynamics, coherence, and entanglement, areas in which ideas from quantum Shannon theory have been influential.

Organizer: Mark Wilde (Louisiana State)

17.1.8: Experimental advances in Quantum Technologies

Much progress has been made in recent years developing small-scale solid-state systems capable of performing elementary processing and communication of quantum information. This includes demonstrations of two qubit gates in semiconductor qubits, novel electro-optical converters based on whispering gallery resonators and the verification of exponential protection of zero modes in Majorana islands. The purpose of this focus session is to review recent advances in the construction, control, and readout of solid-state quantum systems and how they might form the building blocks of future quantum technologies.

Organizers: James Colless (Berkeley) & David Reilly (U Sydney)

17.1.9: Challenging conventional quantum limits in measurements and metrology

Today is an exciting time in quantum metrology and measurements of individual quantum systems. Theoreticians are challenging long-held beliefs and assumptions, ranging from the true limits of resolution (e.g. the Rayleigh criterion), to the proper counting of resources and ultimate achievability of bounds. New methods are being introduced for proving achievable ultimate quantum limits and new approaches to achieve these bounds in presence of loss and noise are being developed. Experimentally, quantum-limited measurements are now being made on ever larger systems, including superconducting circuits and quantum optomechanical systems, backaction evasion schemes for surpassing conventional quantum limits have been implemented, and progress is being made in use of non-classical states of light and mechanical motion to enhance measurement. This focus topic will address the most recent theoretical and experimental results related to quantum limited measurement and metrology, and provide a venue for discussing future research directions.

Organizers: Aashish Clerk (McGill) & Howard Wiseman (Griffith U)

17.1.10: Gamification and other novel approaches in quantum physics outreach (GQI/FOEP/DCOMP) [same as 25.6 and 16.1.10]

The last couple of years have seen the release and development of several computer games based on the basic principles of quantum mechanics. These games are variously aimed at outreach, education, and crowd-sourcing research. The aim of this session is to bring these games to the attention of a wider audience of physicists and discuss the challenges, successes and failures of using this medium to promote public understanding of and involvement in quantum physics research. It will also address related innovations, such as interactive demonstrations and online educational resources.

Organizer: Matt Leifer (Chapman U)

18: MATTER AT EXTREME CONDITIONS (DCMP/DCOMP/GSCCM)

18.1.1: Materials in Extremes: Bridging Simulation and Experiment (DCOMP/DMP/GSCCM(SHOCK)) [same as 16.1.7]

The behavior of matter under extreme conditions of high pressure, temperature, strain and strain rate is of fundamental scientific importance. Geophysical processes in the core of the Earth and other planets, matter withstanding hypervelocity impacts of comets, shock wave compression of materials, detonation of explosives, high pressure and high temperature synthesis of novel materials, failure of materials reaching their intrinsic limit of performance, all require an understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of materials response at the atomic, microstructural, and continuum levels. Recent advances in theory and modeling, due to enormous increase in computer power combined with new computational techniques, have made it possible to extend simulations to the time and length scales of the experiments.

This Focus Topic, consisting of several sessions with invited and contributed talks, will assess recent experimental and computational efforts towards exploring the fundamental properties of materials at extreme conditions, including (1) high-pressure and high temperature synthesis and characterization of materials; (2) static and shock-induced materials behavior, including plasticity, phase transitions, and chemical reactions; (3) high strain rate phenomena occurring upon ultrafast energy deposition; (4) static and dynamic properties of energetic materials, including detonation phenomena; (5) properties of matter in the warm dense regime; and (6) new computational methods including development of interatomic potentials and multi-scale simulations.

Organizers: Ivan Oleynik (University of South Florida), Anatoly Belonoshko (Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden), Ricky Chau (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory), Timothy Germann (Los Alamos National Laboratory)

19: INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENTS (GIMS)

19.1.1: Advances in Scanned Probe Microscopy 1: Novel approaches and ultra sensitive detection

No Description Provided

19.1.2: Advances in Scanned Probe Microscopy 2: High frequencies and Optical Techniques

No Description Provided

19.1.3: Advances in Scanned Probe Microscopy 3: Scanning Probes Spectroscopic Techniques

No Description Provided

19.1.4: Optical Spectroscopic Measurements of 2D Materials

No Description Provided

20: FLUIDS (DFD)

20.1.1: Active Matter: from colloidal bots to reconstituted networks

No Description Provided

21: ENERGY RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS (GERA)

21.1.1: Organic Electronic Systems for Solar Energy Conversion

No Description Provided

21.1.2: Novel Photophysics and Transport Mechanisms for Nanostructured Photovoltaics

No Description Provided

21.1.3: Solar Fuels

No Description Provided

21.1.4: Physics of Batteries, Supercapacitors, and Fuel Cells

No Description Provided

21.1.5: Thermoelectric Materials and Applications (GERA, DCOMP, FIAP) [same as 22.1.1]

No Description Provided

21.1.6: Materials for Electrochemical Energy Storage (GERA, DMP, FIAP) [same as 22.1.2]

No Description Provided

22: APPLICATIONS (IT, Medical/Bio, Photonics, etc.) (FIAP)

22.1.1: Thermoelectric Materials and Applications (GERA, DCOMP, FIAP) [same as 21.1.5]

No Description Provided

22.1.2: Materials for Electrochemical Energy Storage (GERA, DMP, FIAP) [same as 21.1.6]

No Description Provided

22.1.3: Spin Transport and Magnetization Dynamics in Metals-Based Systems (GMAG/DMP/FIAP) [same as 10.1.4]

No Description Provided

22.1.4: Spin-Dependent Phenomena in Semiconductors (GMAG/DMP/FIAP) [same as 08.1.1, 10.1.5]

No Description Provided

23: PHYSICS OF CLIMATE (GPC)

23.1.1: Focus Session: Natural Pattern Formation and Earth’s Climate System (GPC/GSNP) [same as 3.1.26]

This session presents research on pattern formation in the Earth system and its relationship to climate. Theoretical and experimental investigations of spatial pattern formation have been a central part of nonlinear and statistical physics for decades, and this research often draws inspiration from the natural environment at the microscopic scale all the way up to the planetary scale, e.g. cloud patterns, ripples on sand, and thermosolutal convection in the oceans. An application of our current understanding of pattern formation has emerged at an interface between the climate system and pattern formation in the environment, where large scale satellite observations often replace laboratory experiments for gaining understanding and testing predictions. Examples of topics to be presented include the patterns of melt ponds on Arctic sea ice and the size distribution of Earth’s lakes. Melt ponds in the Arctic play a significant role in determining the ice albedo, and knowledge of the distribution of Earth’s lakes is required for estimates of surface fluxes of CO2 and CH4. Presentations in this session may also address the formation of vegetation patterns in the semi-arid regions of the terrestrial globe, which are on a spatial scale to be observed and monitored by satellites, and which represent regions that are vulnerable to desertification. Other contributions in the session may investigate global patterns of teleconnections in the climate system.

Organizers: Mary Silber (University of Chicago)

24: PHYSICS EDUCATION (FEd)