Focus Topic Descriptions, 13.1.1 to 24.1.2

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13: SUPERLATTICES, NANOSTRUCTURES, AND OTHER ARTIFICIALLY STRUCTURED MATERIALS (DCMP/DMP)

 

13.1.1: Nanostructures and Metamaterials (DMP) (DCMP/DMP)

Recent experimental, theoretical and computational advances have enabled the design and realization of nanostructured materials with novel, complex and unusual electromagnetic properties. Such metamaterials and nanostructures provide unique opportunities to manipulate electromagnetic radiation over a broad range of frequencies, from the visible and infrared to terahertz and microwave. This focus topic will highlight recent progress in the fabrication and physical understanding of these designer materials. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to: nanophotonics, plasmonics, quantum optics, and the emerging interface of condensed matter and materials physics with the biological and neuro and energy sciences.

Organizers: Vivian Ferry (U. Minnesota) veferry@umn.edu, Jeremy Munday (U. Maryland) jnmunday@umd.edu, Michael Naughton (Boston College) naughton@bc.edu

13.1.2: Many-body Perturbation Theory for Electronic Excitations in Materials (DMP) [Same as 7.1.3, 8.1.6 and 12.1.10]

Many properties of functional materials, interfaces, and nano-structures derive from electronic excitations. For example, the ionization potential, the electron affinity, the fundamental gap, dielectric screening, charge transition levels of defects or dopants, and the energy level alignment at interfaces are associated with charged excitations. Conversely, the optical gap, absorption spectra, and exciton binding energies correspond to neutral excitations. These properties are critical parameters for the performance of devices, such as transistors, light emitting diodes, and solar cells.

A proper description of electronic excitations requires theoretical approaches that go beyond ground state density functional theory (DFT). Methods originating from Green’s function based many-body perturbation theory are a natural choice. In this framework, the random phase approximation (RPA) accounts for dynamic and long-range correlation effects (e.g., van der Waals interactions) manifested in the dielectric function and in the energetics of weakly bonded systems. The GW approximation, where G is the one-particle Green’s function and W is the screened Coulomb interaction that derives from the dielectric function, provides an accurate description of charged excitations and the Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) of neutral excitations (including charge transfer excitations).

This focus topic is dedicated to recent advances in many-body perturbation theory methods for electronic excitations, their scalable implementations in electronic structure codes, and their applications to functional materials, interfaces, molecules, and nano-structures.

Organizers: Volker Blum (Duke) volker.blum@duke.edu, Claudia Draxl (Humboldt University of Berlin) claudia.draxl@physik.hu-berlin.de, Thomas Koerzdoerfer (U. Potsdam), Noa Marom (Tulane) nmarom@tulane.edu

13.1.3: Electron, Ion, and Exciton Transport in Nanostructures (DMP) (DCMP/DMP)
[Same as 14.1.1]

Understanding the transport of electrons, ions, and excitons in nanostructures is critical for realizing the potential of nanoscience and next generation device technologies. Of particular challenge, and opportunity, for understanding transport in nanostructures is the impact of interfaces, shapes, electronic confinement, interactions and quantum effects. This is particularly true of hybrid, complex nanomaterials of different compositions and phases that can have varying degrees of electronic and optical couplings and interactions. Depending on the composition and geometry, couplings (electromagnetic, Coulomb, ballistic, tunnel, etc) can be weak or strong. Structural components used in hybrid nanostructures can be made of semiconductors, metals, molecules, liquids, etc. Correspondingly, elementary excitations responsible for optical and transport responses of such nanostructures include excitons, plasmons, electrons and ions.

Contributions are solicited in areas that reflect recent advances in experimental characterization and theory of transport mechanisms in inorganic and hybrid nanoscale structures. Specific topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

  • Excitonic nanomaterials with light-harvesting and lighting properties utilizing both solid-state and molecular components
  • Plasmonic nano- and meta-structures for light harvesting and concentration
  • Hybrid structures with interacting exciton and plasmon resonances
  • Energy transfer in hybrid nanomaterials including dots, wires, plates, polymers, etc
  • Charge and exciton transport through metal-semiconductor interfaces
  • Ultrafast dynamics of charge and exciton transport in nanostructures and across nanoscale interfaces
  • Dynamics of energy and charge flow in nanostructured hybrid materials
  • Hybrid nanomaterials for photo-catalytic applications utilizing excitons and plasmons
  • Nanomaterials with bio-sensor properties
  • Externally driven nanomaterials interacting with bio-matter
  • Theoretical models of hybrid nanostructures with migration of charge and energy
  • Experimental and theoretical correlation of nanoscale structure with electronic transport properties.
  • Influence of dimensionality on charge and exciton transport

Organizers: Pierre Darancet (Argonne National Laboratory) pdarancet@anl.gov, Alec Talin (Sandia National Laboratories) aatalin@sandia.gov

13.1.4: Complex Oxide Interfaces and Heterostructures (DMP) (DCMP/DMP)

Complex oxide heterostructures display a range of impressive multi-functionality, encompassing superconductivity, colossal magnetoresistance, magnetism, multiferroicity, and strongly correlated Mott-Hubbard insulator-type behavior in addition to novel interface-stabilized ground states such as two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs), 2D superconductivity, novel magnetism, and topological phases. The extreme sensitivity of these phenomena to composition and interface structure offers endless possibilities for fundamental studies of the interactions between the structural and electronic degrees of freedom that give rise to these fascinating phenomena, and thus providing many insights into materials physics in addition to the capability to design completely new devices. Local symmetry breaking, charge transfer, magnetic and electrostatic interactions, and coupling between structural modes are just some of the many mechanisms that can lead to the appearance of novel interfacial functionalities and can be employed for rational design of artificial materials with desirable structural, electronic and magnetic properties.

The aim of this focus session is to provide a forum for the discussion of recent experimental and theoretical results on complex-oxide heterostructures and their interfaces. The topics covered in this session will include advances in the growth and characterization of complex-oxide heterostructures, development of interface-related measurement techniques, theory and modeling of oxide heterostructures and interfaces, experimental investigation and tuning of interface-related properties in conducting, insulating and magnetic oxides, chemical and electrochemical effects in manifestation of physical functionalities, applications based on interface-related phenomena in complex-oxide heterostructures, and new phenomena appearing in complex oxides owing to heterostructuring.

Organizers: Sergei V. Kalinin (ORNL) sergei2@ornl.gov, James M Rondinelli (Northwestern U.) jrondinelli@northwestern.edu

13.1.5: Thermoelectric Phenomena, Materials, Devices, and Applications (DMP/GERA/FIAP/DCOMP) (DCMP/DMP)
[Same as 21.1.1 and 22.1.5]

Thermoelectrics have emerged as a new frontier of materials research for energy conversion applications, with the dramatic increases in ZT over the past twelve months adding to the excitement. Physics associated with charge carrier, spin, photon, and phonon transport is of particular interest. This focus topic addresses recent developments in the fundamental understanding of thermoelectric materials, including theory, synthesis, characterization, processing, mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties. This sessions will also highlight the latest application advances in waste heat recovery, high efficiency heating/cooling, and how application related requirements lead to new avenues of fundamental research. Both Experimental and theoretical contributions are solicited.

Organizers: Pramod Reddy (U. Michigan) pramodr@umich.edu, Eric Toberer (Colorado School of Mines) etoberer@mines.edu, Jeffrey Urban (LBNL) jjurban@lbl.gov

13.1.6: Mesoscopic Materials and Devices (DMP) (DCMP/DMP)

This Focus Topic covers materials and devices with physical dimensions that are comparable to the quantum phase coherence length of the electrons.  In this regime, the properties of the system can be manipulated and novel phenomena can be uncovered by controlling the size, shape, configuration and boundary conditions. The focus topic spans two main areas: (i) facilities, tools and methods needed to make, characterize and describe mesoscale materials, and (ii) new mesoscale phenomena and functionality. In particular, contributions describing new results in the following areas are solicited:

  • Mesoscale fabrication: For example, lithographic techniques based on high-resolution electron beams, scanning- force-microscopy (SFM), and imprinting; SFM-stimulated growth; self-assembly; focused ion beam (FIB) manufacture; electron-beam-induced deposition (EBID); ion-beam-induced deposition (IBID) and other novel fabrication and synthesis methods.
  • Mesoscale characterization: Some examples are ballistic-electron emission microscopy (BEEM), SFM, optical microscopy and spectroscopy, time- and frequency-resolved measurements, tunneling spectroscopy, transport properties and electro-luminescence studies in small structures.
  • Mesostructures and devices: This includes quantum wires and dots; mesoscale FETs and single-electron transistors (SETS); photonic and plasmonic structures; ferromagnetic, multiferroic, and spin-based devices; superlattice arrays; new developments in graphene devices, topological states of matter at the mesoscale; molecular electronic systems; and meso-electromechanical devices.
  • Correlated electron systems at the mesoscale: Relevant phenomena include non-equilibrium transport, instabilities; competition between phases at the mesoscale; and quantum critical phenomena in metallic systems.
  • Quantum coherence at the mesoscale: The systems include the quantum Hall effect in mesoscale devices; ballistic quantum systems; quantum chaos; quantum-computing implementations and theory, phase coherence and breaking of coherence in electronic and spin systems.

Organizers: David Lederman (West Virginia U) dlederma@wvu.edu, Jeremy Levy (U. Pittsburgh) jlevy@pitt.edu, Nina Markovic (Johns Hopkins University) ninazagreb@gmail.com

14: SURFACES, INTERFACES AND THIN FILMS (DCMP)

14.1.1: Electron, Ion, and Exciton Transport in Nanostructures (DMP) (DCMP/DMP)
[same as 13.1.3]

Understanding the transport of electrons, ions, and excitons in nanostructures is critical for realizing the potential of nanoscience and next generation device technologies. Of particular challenge, and opportunity, for understanding transport in nanostructures is the impact of interfaces, shapes, electronic confinement, interactions and quantum effects. This is particularly true of hybrid, complex nanomaterials of different compositions and phases that can have varying degrees of electronic and optical couplings and interactions. Depending on the composition and geometry, couplings (electromagnetic, Coulomb, ballistic, tunnel, etc) can be weak or strong. Structural components used in hybrid nanostructures can be made of semiconductors, metals, molecules, liquids, etc. Correspondingly, elementary excitations responsible for optical and transport responses of such nanostructures include excitons, plasmons, electrons and ions.

Contributions are solicited in areas that reflect recent advances in experimental characterization and theory of transport mechanisms in inorganic and hybrid nanoscale structures. Specific topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

  • Excitonic nanomaterials with light-harvesting and lighting properties utilizing both solid-state and molecular components
  • Plasmonic nano- and meta-structures for light harvesting and concentration
  • Hybrid structures with interacting exciton and plasmon resonances
  • Energy transfer in hybrid nanomaterials including dots, wires, plates, polymers, etc
  • Charge and exciton transport through metal-semiconductor interfaces
  • Ultrafast dynamics of charge and exciton transport in nanostructures and across nanoscale interfaces
  • Dynamics of energy and charge flow in nanostructured hybrid materials
  • Hybrid nanomaterials for photo-catalytic applications utilizing excitons and plasmons
  • Nanomaterials with bio-sensor properties
  • Externally driven nanomaterials interacting with bio-matter
  • Theoretical models of hybrid nanostructures with migration of charge and energy
  • Experimental and theoretical correlation of nanoscale structure with electronic transport properties.
  • Influence of dimensionality on charge and exciton transport

Organizers: Pierre Darancet (Argonne National Laboratory) pdarancet@anl.gov, Alec Talin (Sandia National Laboratories) aatalin@sandia.gov

16: GENERAL THEORY/COMPUTATIONAL PHYSICS (DCOMP)

16.1.1: Theory and Simulations of Novel Superconductors

Discovery of novel superconductors is a frequent event, while understanding the fundamental physics that drives the (sometimes) high Tc can be elusive. This session will bring together mainly theorists who have endeavored to shed light onto the mechanism(s) for the superconductivity either observed, or in some cases predicted, by a combination of theory and computer simulations.  Notable in recent months has been the discovery and theory/simulation work on hydrogen sulfide superconductors with Tc’s in the range of 200K, and in recent years Fe-based compounds and new materials that superconduct under high pressure. Other prominent examples at relatively high Tc include (Ba,K)BiO3 and the HfNCl class of 2D electron-doped superconductors. The session will also welcome new results on unconventional cases including non-centrosymmetric and magnetic superconductors, and materials or models with exotic order parameters. Important numerical extensions of theory are especially welcomed.

Organizers: Barry M. Klein (UC Davis) bmklein@ucdavis.edu, Warren E. Pickett (UC Davis) pickett@physics.ucdavis.edu

16.1.2: Predicting and Classifying Materials Via High-Throughput Databases and Machine Learning

This focus session aims to foster communication between researchers involved in high-throughput generation of materials data and researchers working on new mathematical representations of materials to leverage high-throughput data for data mining and machine learning. In the spirit of the Materials Genome Initiative, the session promotes synergy between different approaches aimed at improving material design by computational approaches.

Organizer: Gus Hart (BYU) gus.hart@gmail.com

16.1.3: Theory and Simulations of Strongly Correlated Systems With Disorder

The effect of randomness on the physics of strongly interacting electrons- magnetism, Mott insulating behavior, and novel pairing mechanisms- is central to the properties of cuprate and iron pnictide superconductors, manganites, heavy fermions, and many other materials. This is an especially challenging computational problem, since capturing the heterogeneities introduced by disorder requires substantially larger lattice sizes than those needed for translationally invariant models. The purpose of this DCOMP Focus Session is to bring together researchers developing and applying new numerical approaches to this important problem.

Organizer: Richard Scalettar (UC Davis) scalettar@physics.ucdavis.edu

16.1.4: Revealing New Physics with Petascale and Beyond Computational Resources

Novel algorithms coupled with significant advances in computing hardware such as GPUs and PHIs are enabling physicists to study the properties of materials, the fundamental building blocks of matter such as quarks, atoms and molecules, the structure of the universe, climate change, earthquakes, etc on an unprecedented spatial and temporal scale. While in many cases, these calculations only reveal finer details of the physical system under scrutiny, they can also reveal new physics that would not have emerged from a simpler model.  This focus session will bring together scientists willing to share what they have learned from developing these new algorithms and applying them to systems ranging from the smallest to the largest physical systems in the universe.

Organizers: Barry Schneider (NIST) barry.schneider@nist.gov; Jack Wells (ORNL) wellsjc@ornl.gov

16.1.5: Electrons, Phonons and Electron-Phonon Scattering

Electron-phonon interactions play a central role in the resistivity of metals at ordinary temperatures, and are important for electrical and thermal conductivity of thermoelectrics, the temperature dependence of the optical band gaps of semiconductors, and other phenomena such as phonon drag. This focus topic covers electron-phonon interactions emphasizing fundamental physics, direct computation, first principles and phenomenological theory, optical and phonon spectroscopy and novel effects in nanostructures, nanodevices, 2D materials, and bulk materials.

Organizer: David J. Singh (University of Missouri) singhdj@missouri.edu

16.1.6: Theory and Simulation of Excited-state Phenomena in Semiconductors and Nanostructures

Electronic excitations play a crucial role in the operation and performance of electronic and optoelectronic devices. Understanding their properties and their real-time dynamics is important, both from a fundamental and applied point of view.

This Focus Topic aims to highlight recent work on how hot carriers in semiconductors and nanostructures are generated, transition between excited states, transfer energy to the lattice, and how they recombine with each other. Coupled electron-ion dynamics is the origin of interesting physics crucial for understanding photo-catalysis, surface chemical reactions, scintillators, or radiation shielding. Moreover, the ratio of radiative to non-radiative recombination rates determines the efficiency of light-emitting devices and theoretical studies of non-radiative carrier recombination emerge as an active research topic. Understanding how these properties are modified at the nanoscale is necessary.

Theory and simulation are indispensable for describing electronic phenomena in materials and predictive quantum-mechanical calculations can now employ less restrictive approximations and even explore non-adiabatic electron-ion dynamics. This Focus Topic aims to attract researchers working on the nexus of electronic and optical properties of materials, hot electron dynamics, and device physics.

Organizers: Emmanouil Kioupakis (University of Michigan) kioup@umich.edu; Andr� Schleife (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) schleife@illinois.edu

16.1.7: Materials in Extremes: Bridging Simulation and Experiment (DCOMP/DMP/GSCCM) [Same as 18.1.1]

The behavior of matter under extreme conditions of high pressure, temperature, strain and strain rate is of fundamental scientific importance. Geophysical processes in the core of the Earth and other planets, matter withstanding hypervelocity impacts of comets, shock wave compression of materials, detonation of explosives, high pressure and high temperature synthesis of novel materials, failure of materials reaching their intrinsic limit of performance, all require an understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of materials response at the atomic, microstructural, and continuum levels. Experimental approaches are achieving ever more extreme conditions while applying novel diagnostics to increase the extent and fidelity of the measured data.  Similarly, advances in theory and modeling, due to enormous increase in computer power combined with new computational techniques, have made it possible to extend simulations to the time and length scales of the experiments. This focus session, consisting of several invited and contributed talks, will assess recent experimental and computational efforts towards exploring the fundamental properties of materials at extreme conditions, including (1) high-pressure and high temperature synthesis and characterization of novel materials;  (2) static and shock-induced materials behavior, including plasticity, phase transitions, and chemical reactions; (3) high strain rate phenomena occurring upon ultrafast energy deposition; (3) static and dynamic properties of energetic materials, including detonation phenomena; (4) properties of matter in the warm dense regime; and (6) new computational methods including development of interatomic potentials and multi-scale simulations.

Organizers: Ricky Chau (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) chau2@llnl.gov; Timothy Germann (Los Alamos National Laboratory) tcg@lanl.gov; Ivan Oleynik (University of South Florida) oleynik@usf.edu

16.1.8: Explicitly Correlated Methods and Quantum Few-Body Systems

Computational methods tackling the difficult problem of describing correlated motion of interacting quantum particles by employing explicitly correlated wavefunctions have had a tremendous success in the last two decades. Explicitly correlated approaches have a wide range of applications in chemistry and physics and provide a very powerful tool to solve quantum few-body problem with various types of interparticle interaction. There is a significant interest in expanding the applicability of such methods to new areas and problems. The purpose of this focus session is to survey recent research activity in the field and provide a much needed forum for physicists and chemists, share experience, and discuss many theoretical and computational issues.

Contributions spanning relevant theoretical developments and applications of the explicitly correlated methods will be solicited in the following areas:

  • Atomic and molecular physics
  • Ultracold systems, Efimov states, universal few-body physics
  • Quantum chemistry (including R12/F12 methods)
  • Few-body systems in condensed matter (quantum dots, biexitons, etc)
  • Systems containing positrons and other exotic particles
  • Scattering problems

Organizer: Sergiy Bubin sergiy.bubin@nu.edu.kz

17: QUANTUM INFORMATION (GQI)

17.1.1: Towards Scalable Quantum Computers

This focus topic will examine recent advances towards scalable quantum information devices. The topic will include experimental talks on both solid state and AMO qubit technologies with an emphasis on improved gate fidelities and the development of integrated systems. It will also include theoretical talks on improvements in quantum error correction, quantum control, and proposals for scalable architectures.

17.1.2: Hybrid Quantum Systems

This focus topic will examine recent experimental and theoretical developments in hybrid quantum systems that combine quantum system of multiple types. Examples range from quantum dots coupled to microwave cavities to trapped ions coupled to micromechanical resonators.

Organizer: Guido Burkard, University of Konstanz

17.1.3: Adiabatic Quantum Computation and Quantum Annealing

Adiabatic models of quantum computation and quantum annealing perform computational tasks by evolving the system under a slowly changing Hamiltonian. This topic will focus on the theory and applications of adiabatic quantum computers and quantum annealers, and challenges for error suppression and correction on these devices.

Organizer: Daniel Lidar, University of Southern California

17.1.4: Finite-size Quantum Information Theory

A growing topic of interest in quantum information theory is to understand what the capabilities are for a finite number of quantum systems. Traditionally, the focus has been on asymptotics and there has been a disconnect between the theory and what is possible in practice. In the past three years, the theoretical tools have sharpened significantly and we can answer questions such as "How many qubits can I send with 100 channel uses if I desire an error probability no larger than 10-6 ?" Answers to such questions place fundamental limitations on small quantum computers and are the focus of this session.

Organizer: Mark Wilde, Louisiana State University

17.1.5: Quantum Characterization, Validation, and Verification

As reported errors in quantum gates approach fault-tolerance thresholds, it becomes more important to confirm the methods by which errors are assessed and gate functions are determined. This topic will include recent advances in tomography and benchmarking methods, tests for detecting coherent errors, and appropriate error bounds for quantum error correction.

Organizer: Charles Tahan, Laboratory of Physical Sciences, University of Maryland

17.1.6: Quantum Information and Thermodynamics

It is increasingly apparent that quantum entanglement offers a powerful tool to describe physics. This is necessary to develop realistic proposals for measuring entanglement as well as other quantum information quantities from physical quantities. In the past decade, owing to the control of small-scale devices such as quantum heat engines and electronic circuits, thermodynamics has become part of the bedrock to understand how to measure information quantities in the physical world. Establishing thermodynamics in quantum scales requires a quantum description for exchange of physical quantities such as energy, charge, spin, etc. This requires generalization of information correlations that sometimes goes beyond standard definitions for entanglement. These correlations in condensed matter and information theory have been realized and are the driving force behind recent developments.

Organizer: Mohammad Ansari, TU Delft

17.1.7: Gravity and Quantum Information

Quantum information is providing a fresh look at the gravity-quantum interface. Experiments range from high-precision measurements of the gravitational field using quantum systems all the way to actual large quantum superposition states of clocks or increasingly massive objects, where experiments may be in reach in the near future. In addition, the relevance of quantum information concepts for studying fundamental properties of space-time.

18: MATTER AT EXTREME CONDITIONS (DCMP/DCOMP/GSCCM)

18.1.1: Materials in Extremes: Bridging Simulation and Experiment (DCOMP/DMP/GSCCM) [Same as 16.1.7]

The behavior of matter under extreme conditions of high pressure, temperature, strain and strain rate is of fundamental scientific importance. Geophysical processes in the core of the Earth and other planets, matter withstanding hypervelocity impacts of comets, shock wave compression of materials, detonation of explosives, high pressure and high temperature synthesis of novel materials, failure of materials reaching their intrinsic limit of performance, all require an understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of materials response at the atomic, microstructural, and continuum levels. Experimental approaches are achieving ever more extreme conditions while applying novel diagnostics to increase the extent and fidelity of the measured data.  Similarly, advances in theory and modeling, due to enormous increase in computer power combined with new computational techniques, have made it possible to extend simulations to the time and length scales of the experiments. This focus session, consisting of several invited and contributed talks, will assess recent experimental and computational efforts towards exploring the fundamental properties of materials at extreme conditions, including (1) high-pressure and high temperature synthesis and characterization of novel materials;  (2) static and shock-induced materials behavior, including plasticity, phase transitions, and chemical reactions; (3) high strain rate phenomena occurring upon ultrafast energy deposition; (3) static and dynamic properties of energetic materials, including detonation phenomena; (4) properties of matter in the warm dense regime; and (6) new computational methods including development of interatomic potentials and multi-scale simulations.

Organizers: Ricky Chau (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) chau2@llnl.gov; Timothy Germann (Los Alamos National Laboratory) tcg@lanl.gov; Ivan Oleynik (University of South Florida) oleynik@usf.edu

19: INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENTS (GIMS)

19.1.1: Advances in Scanned Probe Microscopy 1: Novel Approaches and Ultrasensitive Detection

The APS Topical Group on Instrumentation and Measurement (GIMS) invites papers on advances in Scanning Probe Microscopy and related instrumentation, with a focus on novel approaches and ultrasensitive detection. Advances in scanned probe force measurement and mapping exploiting novel tip-sample interactions, improved detection sensitivity and widening of circumstances under which they are applied continue to push the frontier in the measurement of a broad range of physical, chemical and biological systems. This session will focus on the continued innovative development of scanned probe microscopy and related instrumentation. Particular advances and applications are seen in new approaches to force detection and novel techniques for probing a variety of surfaces and interactions. This session seeks to bring together expertise from a variety of fields in scanned probe microscopy that will further the development of advanced instrumentation and measurement science focused on the atomic and nanometer scale.

Organizer: Joseph Stroscio (joseph.stroscio@nist.gov)

19.1.2: Advances in Scanned Probe Microscopy 2: High Frequencies and Optical Techniques

The APS Topical Group on Instrumentation and Measurement (GIMS) invites papers on advances in Scanning Probe Microscopy and related instrumentation with a focus on optical techniques and radio-frequency measurements. A severe limitation in traditional scanning probe microscopy is low temporal resolution, originating from the diminished high-frequency response of readout circuitry. It was recently shown that some of these obstacles can be overcome. Recent advances in the combination of scanning probe and optical techniques have resulted for example in ultra-fast (sub-picosecond) temporal resolution and tip-enhanced Raman scattering. This session seeks to bring together expertise from a variety of fields in scanned probe microscopy and optical techniques that will further the development of advanced instrumentation and measurement science focused on the atomic and nanometer scale.

Organizer: Joseph Stroscio (joseph.stroscio@nist.gov)

19.1.3: Advances in Scanned Probe Microscopy 3: Scanning Probes Spectroscopic Techniques

The APS Topical Group on Instrumentation and Measurement (GIMS) invites papers on advances in Scanning Probe Microscopy and related instrumentation with a focus on spectroscopic measurements on novel materials. The scanning tunneling microscope has matured over the last few years into a tool that is now routinely applied in energy-resolved measurement modes at cryogenic temperatures. The atomic-force microscope has been used to measure force-distance curves which give detailed information about atomic species on the surface and at the tip apex as a form of force spectroscopy. This session seeks to bring together expertise from a variety of aspects of scanned probe microscopy that will further the development of advanced instrumentation and measurement science focused on the atomic and nanometer scale spectroscopic measurement of new and novel materials.

Organizer: Joseph Stroscio (joseph.stroscio@nist.gov)

19.1.4: Optical Spectroscopic Measurements of 2D Materials (GIMS/DMP)

The APS Topical Group on Instrumentation and Measurement (GIMS) invites papers on advances in optical spectroscopic measurements and related instrumentation for two-dimensional (2D) materials and heterostructures composed of these materials. Optical spectroscopy is used to study the interaction of light with physical materials and includes but is not limited to absorption, scattering, and emission. Of particular interest in this session are novel measurements that provide fresh insight and/or have been combined with other techniques to interrogate concealed phenomenon. We seek to bring together expertise from a variety of spectroscopic fields with a focus on 2D materials that will further optical measurement science as foundational to identifying the underlying physics of these materials and devices.

Organizer: Angela R. Hight Walker (angela.hightwalker@nist.gov)

20: FLUIDS (DFD)

20.1.1: Active Matter: From Colloidal Bots to Reconstituted Networks (GSOFT/DBIO/GSNP) (GSOFT)
[Same as 3.1.9 and 4.1.12]

Active materials are out of equilibrium systems composed of many interacting units that dissipate energy at the local scale and collectively generate motion or mechanical stress. This session focuses on the emergent behavior of engineered active systems, including active colloids, swimming droplets and other microswimmers, vibrated granular matter, and in-vitro networks of cytoskeletal proteins and motor proteins.

Organizers: Cristina Marchetti (Syracuse University) mcmarche@syr.edu and Yuhai Tu (IBM) yuhai@us.ibm.com

21: ENERGY RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS (GERA)

21.1.1: Thermoelectric Phenomena, Materials, Devices, and Applications (DMP/GERA/FIAP/DCOMP) (DCMP/DMP)
[Same as 13.1.6 and 22.1.5]

Thermoelectrics have emerged as a new frontier of materials research for energy conversion applications, with the dramatic increases in ZT over the past twelve months adding to the excitement. Physics associated with charge carrier, spin, photon, and phonon transport is of particular interest. This focus topic addresses recent developments in the fundamental understanding of thermoelectric materials, including theory, synthesis, characterization, processing, mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties. This sessions will also highlight the latest application advances in waste heat recovery, high efficiency heating/cooling, and how application related requirements lead to new avenues of fundamental research. Both Experimental and theoretical contributions are solicited.

Organizers: Pramod Reddy (U. Michigan) pramodr@umich.edu, Eric Toberer (Colorado School of Mines) etoberer@mines.edu, Jeffrey Urban (LBNL) jjurban@lbl.gov

22: APPLICATIONS (IT, Medical/Bio, Photonics, etc.) (FIAP)

22.1.3: Spin Transport and Magnetization Dynamics in Metals-based Systems (GMAG/DMP/FIAP) [Same as 10.1.4]

Spin-related effects in metals and ferromagnetic heterostructures are of great interest from a fundamental science as well as from an application orientated point of view. Fundamental spin-dependent transport physics, novel materials and thin film structures are being actively explored in metallic multilayer-based junctions and magnetic tunnel junctions for deeper understanding and potentially new functional materials and devices. Discoveries like giant- or tunneling-magnetoresistance have rapidly moved to applications, and uses of more recent discoveries, including thermal effects, spin-transfer torque, the spin Hall effect and chiral domain walls, are imminent.

This Focus Topic aims to capture new developments in these areas, including experimental and theoretical aspects of spin transport and magnetization dynamics in mostly metal-based systems, such as ultrathin films, lateral nanostructures, perpendicular nanopillars, and tunnel junctions. In particular, contributions describing new results in the following areas are solicited: (i) The interplay between spin currents and magnetization dynamics in magnetic nanostructures; spin-transfer, spin-pumping and related phenomena, including current-induced magnetization dynamics in heterostructures and domain wall motion in magnetic wires; (ii) Theoretical predictions and/or experimental discovery of half-metallic band structures, both in bulk solids and at the surfaces of thin films. Spin transport and magnetization dynamics in magnetic nanostructures (e.g. TMR, CPP-GMR and lateral spin valve structures) based on half-metallic materials; (iii) Exchange bias on steady-state and dynamic properties of magnetic films and nanostructures including but not limited to: field-like and damping-like torques on magnetic films and nanostructures arising from the spin-orbit interaction, including, but not limited to the spin-Hall effect, the inverse spin-Hall effect, anomalous-Hall effects, and microscopic mechanisms of magnetization damping; (iv) Electric field control of magnetic properties (e.g. anisotropy, phase transition,…), including but not limited to: hybrid metals/oxide structures, piezoelectric layer coupled to ferromagnetic films, electrolyte/ferromagnetic systems; (v) Ultrafast magnetization response to (and reversal by) intense laser pulses; magnetization dynamics at elevated temperatures and thermally assisted magnetization reversal; (vi) Thermoelectric spin phenomena such as giant-magneto thermopower and Peltier effects, spin-Seebeck effect, spin and anomalous Nernst and Ettingshausen effects (spin caloritronics); (vii) Thermal gradient and/or RF driven magnonic magnetization dynamics in nanostructures including spin wave excitation, propagation, and detection. Interactions between electronic spin-current and magnon propagations in thin film and device structures; (viii) General considerations of spin-angular momentum current flow, energy flow, and entropy flow, conservation laws and Onsager-reciprocal relationships.

Organizers: Olof Karis, Uppsala University, olof.karis@physics.uu.se; Hans Nembach, NIST Boulder, hans.nembach@nist.gov; Kyung-Jin Lee, Korea University, kj_lee@korea.ac.kr; William Bailey, Columbia University, web54@columbia.edu

22.1.4: Spin Dependent Phenomena in Semiconductors (GMAG/DMP/FIAP) [Same as 8.1.1 and 10.1.5]

The field of spin dependent phenomena in semiconductors shows rapid advances as well as challenges in a widening range of new effects and materials systems (e.g. heterostructures, III-Vs, Si and Ge, diamond, organics, carbon-based materials including graphene as well as other novel two-dimensional materials), and new structures (e.g. semiconductor quantum structures and nanostructures, wires and carbon nanotubes, hybrid ferromagnetic/semiconductor structures, and van der Waals heterojunctions). This Focus Topic solicits contributions aimed at understanding spin dependent processes in magnetic and non-magnetic structures incorporating semiconducting materials. Topics include: (i) electrical and optical spin injection and detection, spin Hall effects, spin dependent topological effects, spin interference, spin filtering, spin relaxation time effects, spin dependent scattering, and spin torque; (ii) growth, characterization, electrical, optical and magnetic properties of magnetic semiconductors, nanocomposites, and hybrid ferromagnet/semiconductor structures, including quantum dots, nanocrystals, and nanowires; (iii) spin dependent transport, spin dependent thermal effects, and dynamical effects in semiconductors with or without spin-orbit interactions; (iv) manipulation, detection, and entanglement of electronic and nuclear spins in quantum systems such as dots, impurities and point defects; (v) ferromagnetism in semiconductors and semiconductor oxides; (vi) spin dependent devices and device proposals involving semiconductors; and (vii) quantum anomalous Hall effects in magnetically doped topological insulators and topological insulator/ferromagnetic insulator heterostructures, and Majorana fermions.

Organizers: Pengke Li, Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, pengke@umd.edu; Masashi Shiraishi, Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, shiraishi.masashi.4w@kyoto-u.ac.jp; Igor Žutić, Department of Physics, Univeristy at Buffalo, State University of New York, zigor@buffalo.edu

22.1.5: Building New Pathways in Physics Innovation and Entrepreneurship Education [Same as 24.1.1]

Physics is uniquely positioned among the sciences to produce innovators, because it promotes problem solving techniques based on a fundamental understanding of the universe, and because physics researchers must often think creatively to build devices to measure new phenomena (indeed many of the world's most game-changing commercial technologies were invented by physicists). Furthermore, a standard undergraduate physics training imparts many technical skills which will serve its graduates in what statistics show are likely to be their future career paths: employment in private sector companies.

Nevertheless, few students graduate with a robust awareness of careers outside of the academic realm, or with additional skills which will increase their workforce competitiveness among other STEM graduates. The future of the physics discipline depends on implementing new approaches and building on physics' natural habit of innovation to better prepare students as future scientists, inventors, and entrepreneurs. This session will focus on new and successful pathways for implementing these physics innovation and entrepreneurship (PIE) education approaches into physics curricula.

23: PHYSICS OF CLIMATE (GPC)

23.1.1: Focus Session: Climate as a Non-Equilibrium and Stochastic System

Earth’s climate system is driven far out of equilibrium by the flux of incoming shortwave solar radiation that is ultimately converted to longwave radiation flowing back out into space. The climate is also highly complex with many interacting subsystems (atmosphere, oceans, cryosphere, biosphere) and with non-linear dynamics operating over an enormous range of spatial and temporal scales. This Focus session will explore the non-equilibrium and stochastic statistical mechanics of the climate system. The talks will explore how experimental, observational, computational, and theoretical physics can improve our understanding of the climate system.

Organizers: M. O'Neill, B. Marston, V. Lucarini, D. Holm, J.M. Restrepo

24: PHYSICS EDUCATION (FEd)

24.1.1: Building New Pathways in Physics Innovation and Entrepreneurship Education [Same as 22.1.5]

Physics is uniquely positioned among the sciences to produce innovators, because it promotes problem solving techniques based on a fundamental understanding of the universe, and because physics researchers must often think creatively to build devices to measure new phenomena (indeed many of the world's most game-changing commercial technologies were invented by physicists). Furthermore, a standard undergraduate physics training imparts many technical skills which will serve its graduates in what statistics show are likely to be their future career paths: employment in private sector companies.

Nevertheless, few students graduate with a robust awareness of careers outside of the academic realm, or with additional skills which will increase their workforce competitiveness among other STEM graduates. The future of the physics discipline depends on implementing new approaches and building on physics' natural habit of innovation to better prepare students as future scientists, inventors, and entrepreneurs. This session will focus on new and successful pathways for implementing these physics innovation and entrepreneurship (PIE) education approaches into physics curricula.