APS March Meeting 2017

Focus Topic Descriptions, 1.1.1 to 4.1.31

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1: POLYMERS AND SOFT MATTER PHYSICS (DPOLY)

1.1.1: Architectural design of polymers (DPOLY)

Polymers with controlled monomer sequences and/or branching can exhibit unusual thermodynamics, kinetics, and rheology. As examples, polymer architecture can impact surface attraction in films, thermodynamics in athermal and multicomponent blends, crystallization in polyolefins and conjugated polymers, aggregation in ionic polymers, melt rheology, and copolymer self-assembly. This focus session covers recent developments in these fields. We welcome experimental and theoretical contributions.

Organizers: Gila Stein (University of Tennessee), Rafael Verduzco (Rice University)

1.1.2: Block copolymers and self-assembled hybrid thin films (DPOLY)

Self assembly processes can be significantly impacted by interfaces and confinement. Understanding the physics of block copolymer assembly in thin films, as well as polymer-(in)organic hybrids, is important for next generation advances in a wide array of application space including microelectronics, nanopattering, and photonics, among others. Areas of interest for this focus session include field-directed assembly, nanocomposites, in-situ measurements of structure formation, and interplay between kinetics and thermodynamics in structure formation. Experimental and theoretical contributions are welcome.

Organizers: Bryan Vogt (University of Akron), Gila Stein (University of Tennessee)

1.1.3: Facilitating Ion Transport: the role of structure, dynamics, and reaction rates in ion containing polymers (DPOLY/GSNP) [same as 3.1.21]

There is a tremendous need to facilitate ion transport in polymers that are used in electrochemical energy storage and delivery technologies. The problem is that ions diffuse slowly through polymers, making ion transport the rate limiting step to realize higher power energy storage devices. However, ways to enhance ion mobility through polymer base membranes and electrolytes have been hampered by the complexity of the transport mechanism. One has to take into account the interactions of the active ions with the counter ions in the system, the strength of these ionic interactions, the ionic state of the mobile ions, the nature of the counter ions and whether they are free to move or are covalently attached to the polymeric host, the potential for ionic aggregates in the system, and the collective nature by which the dynamics of the polymeric transport media couple to the mobile ions. This is a challenge because it requires correlating polymer dynamics with ion dynamics, resolving the chemical state of the relevant species that is responsible for ion transport and quantifying their concentration, an understanding of both the relevant diffusion coefficients and rate constants for the system, and lastly the nature by which any structure in the ionic aggregates influences transport. This Focus session will emphasize experimental characterization techniques, simulation and modeling, and theoretical frameworks that improve our basic understanding of ion transport and help to realize polymeric materials with enhanced ion transport.

Organizers: Chris Soles (NIST) and Enrique Gomez (Penn State)

1.1.4: Glass formation and dynamics in nanostructured polymers and glasses (DPOLY/GSNP) [same as 3.1.20]

In diverse glass-forming materials, nanoscale proximity to and nanoconfinement by internal or external interfaces can lead to significant alterations in the glass transition and associated dynamic and mechanical properties. These effects, particularly in polymer thin films, have been heavily studied over the last 20 years because of possible connections to growing dynamical length scales that are hypothesized to underlie the glass transition. More practically, they appear to have substantial effects on material properties in next-generation nanostructured, hybrid, and nanoscaled materials for use in filtration, bioengineering, and energy technologies, as well as in long-standing technologies such as filled rubbers and structural semicrystalline polymers. Understanding dynamical perturbations near these interfaces therefore has important implications for the rational control of material properties. This focus session welcomes all contributions aimed at illuminating characteristics of the glass transition in these diverse materials.

Organizers: Connie Roth (Emory University) and David Simmons (University of Akron)

1.1.5: Morphology evolution and structure-property relationships in multicomponent curing systems (DPOLY)

Curing systems, such as thermosets and photo/moisture-curable resins/polymers, have been widely used in many industrial applications. Properties (e.g., mechanical, thermal, adhesion, optical and electrical) of the cured materials are largely governed by thermodynamics and kinetics of the curing systems and are often modified using additives. The presence of additives may significantly impact processes such as phase separation, plasticization, interpenetrating network formation, and dispersion/agglomeration of fillers upon reaction/cure. The session will focus on original contributions addressing topics on morphology evolution during cure, controlled phase separation, and structure-property relationships of curing systems. Experimental, computational or theoretical contributions are welcome.

Organizers: Zhifeng Bai (Dow Chemical), Chun Liu (Dow Chemical), Megan Robertson (University of Houston)

1.1.6: Multimodal characterization of soft materials in complex environments (DPOLY/GSOFT) [same as 2.1.6]

Soft materials are materials that can be deformed at about room temperature, including liquids, glasses, complex fluids, polymers, foams, gels, colloids, granular materials, as well as most soft biological materials. This class of materials is defined by complexity, where structure is usually defined in terms of time scale. As a result, many manufacturing processes occur far from equilibrium and in complex environments. Small variations in processing parameters can drastically change material properties, such as in-operando batteries and fuel cells, organics electronics, photocatalysis, biomedicine, biological/hybrid assemblies, and so on. Therefore, the knowledge on both structure and dynamics is required to have a molecular understanding of the associated phenomena. The multimodal characterization of the structure and response of these materials are desired to meet the emerging needs of manufacturers to develop higher functionality, higher value products based on increasingly complex soft materials.

This section on soft materials will be dedicated to discuss the extraction of the chemical distribution and spatial arrangement of constituent elements and functional groups at multiple length scales and, thus, the examination of collective dynamics, transport, and electronic ordering phenomena. Traditional measures of structure in soft materials have relied heavily on scattering and imaging based techniques due to their capacity to measure nanoscale dimensions and their capacity to monitor structure under conditions of dynamic stress loading. Special attentions are planned to focus on the application of resonant x-ray scattering, contrast-varied neutron scattering, analytical transmission electron microscopy, and their combinations. This session aims to bring experts in both scattering and electron microscope fields to discuss recent advances in selectively characterizing structural architectures of complex soft materials, which have often multi-components with a wide range of length scales and multiple functionalities, and thus hopes to foster novel ideas to decipher a higher level of structural complexity in soft materials in future.

Organizers: Wei Chen (Argonne National Lab), Cheng Wang (Lawrence Berkeley National Lab), Matthew Tirrell (University of Chicago)

1.1.7: Nanostructured and porous polymers for water purification (DPOLY)

Providing access to clean and affordable drinking water is a growing challenge. Porous and/or nanostructured polymeric materials can play an essential role in the development of new, sustainable technologies for producing clean water and protecting our water resources by efficient wastewater treatment. This focus session will focus on recent developments in the field, and potential topics include membranes for reverse osmosis, forward osmosis, ion-exchange, membrane distillation, electrodialysis, capacitive de-ionization, antifouling coatings and membranes, and novel nano composite membranes. Experimental, theoretical, and computational work is encouraged.

Organizer: Rafael Verduzco (Rice University)

1.1.8: Tough hydrogels (DPOLY/GSOFT) [same as 2.1.9]

Hydrogels, polymer networks that typically contain more water than the original polymer weight, are extensively explored for diverse applications, including contact lenses, wound dressings, cosmetics, and scaffolds for tissue engineering. Natural hydrogels, such as muscles and cartilages, are robust and tough; however, applications for synthetic hydrogels have historically been limited by its brittle nature. During the last decade, there has been extensive research in improving mechanical strengths of hydrogels. Owing to interdisciplinary research efforts that encompass studies on fracture mechanics, structure/property relations, cross-linking chemistry for effective energy dissipation, and extreme elasticity, many hydrogel species have shown significant enhancement. The enhanced mechanical properties triggered a rapid adaptation of the tough hydrogels in unprecedented applications, such as bioimplantable electronics, sensors/actuators in soft machines, surgical glues, and gel electrolytes for energy storage devices.

Organizers: Hyun-Joong Chung (University of Alberta), Daniel King (Hokkaido University)

1.1.9: Organic electronics and photonics (DPOLY/DMP) [same as 8.1.8]

Advances in fundamental understanding in the opto-electronic response of small molecules and polymers can enable further improvement in organic electronic and photonic devices for real applications. This focus session covers current topics related to the fundamental physics of organic semiconductors. Experimental, theoretical and computational contributions are solicited on the optical, transport, magnetic and structural properties of organic semiconductors, structure-function relationships related to molecular and mesostructure, device physics and emerging device concepts in organic-based spintronics, (opto)electronics and energy conversion.

Organizers: Elizabeth von Hauff (VU Amsterdam), Enrico Da Como (University of Bath), Alberto Salleo (Stanford)

1.1.10: Physics of natural polymers, polymer hybrids, and assemblies (DPOLY)

Natural polymers differ from their synthetic counterparts in their chemical functionality, sequence specificity, chain conformations, and thermodynamics. These changes can lead to emergent new physics that is most evident in biopolymer systems, and it motivates the development of new properties and new applications in biopolymer or biohybrid materials. This session will focus on the study of biopolymer systems as it relates to new physics and new materials properties in these systems relevant to polymer and material engineering, spanning all different types of biopolymer materials.

Organizers: Brad Olsen (MIT), XueHui Dong (MIT)

1.1.11: Physics of polymer surfaces and interfaces: adhesion, release, anti-fouling, and self-cleaning principles (DPOLY/GSOFT) [same as 2.1.10]

Physics of polymer surfaces and interfaces are relevant to academia and industry. In many applications, important properties such as adhesion, wetting, and fouling prevention depend crucially on the structure and molecular characteristics of polymers at surfaces or interfaces. Confinement effects (both in scale and geometry) add complexity to the physics and mechanics of polymeric interfaces, where chain structure and dynamics often deviate from mean field behavior. Nature offers interesting patterns, such as the lotus leaf (for superhydrophobicity) or gecko foot (for controlled adhesion), which provide unique interfacial properties due to their structure. Better understanding of these patterns and their working can help develop new and improved materials and applications.

This session will focus on design through composition, structure or topology that influences how a polymeric surface or interface interacts with its surroundings. Topics of interest include purely synthetic, bio-inspired, or purely biological polymers, as well as experimental and theoretical investigations of the mechanism of adhesion and release between polymeric surfaces/interfaces and contacting materials.

Organizers: Tirtha Chatterjee (Dow Chemical), Al Crosby (University of Massachusetts Amherst), Jeff Wilbur (Dow Chemical)

1.1.12: Physics of ring polymers (DPOLY)

This session will focus on recent understanding gained on the structure and dynamics of ring polymers. Ring polymers present rich physics in terms of conformations and dynamics, and differ significantly from the linear counterpart. The influence of topological constraints of ring polymers on the conformation and dynamics presents additional challenges. We invite talks from recent experimental, theory and simulations studies that aim to gain a better understanding on the physics of ring polymers.

Organizer: Yongmei Wang (University of Memphis)

1.1.13: Polymers and polymer nanocomposites with emerging optical and plasmonic properties (DPOLY)

This session will focus on polymers and polymer composites with emerging optical, plasmonic, and other related properties. The recent development in polymers, including block copolymers, has enabled control over the interactions with light across a tunable wavelength range. Nanoparticles made of metals, semiconductors, dielectrics, and other materials added another handle to engineer and design the properties of polymer composites. Nanoparticles of controlled shapes such as nanosphere, nanorod, nanowire, nanoprism, nanocube, and nanostar have tunable optical and plasmonic response and can provide the polymer composites with novel properties. The self-assembly and directed-assembly of nanoparticles in polymers and block copolymers have shown many interesting and fascinating phenomena. In this session, experimental, modeling and theoretical contributions of polymers and block copolymers, as well as their composites with emerging optical and plasmonic properties are particularly welcome. The self- and directed- assembly of nanoparticles in polymers and block copolymers are also strongly encouraged.

Organizer: Guoliang (Greg) Liu (Virginia Tech)

1.1.14: Polymer crystallization under confinement (DPOLY)

In recent years there have been efforts by different groups in both theory and experiment to understand how, why and when polymers crystallize under confinement. This is not only a fundamental problem in polymer physics but has also important technological applications in materials science (e.g. the fabrication of polymeric materials with pre-determined crystallinity can result in materials with controlled mechanical, electrical and optical properties). Of central importance to this discussion is the origin of heterogeneous and homogeneous nucleation and their possible relation to the freezing of the local segmental dynamics at the liquid-to- glass temperature. This session focuses on the role of confinement in giving rise to non-traditional crystalline morphologies and/or physical properties in semi-crystalline polymers. Confinement is broadly defined here and may refer to restrictions on chain motion due to molecular topology (e.g., cyclic, star, or block copolymer architectures), geometrical confinement (e.g., crystallization in thin films or pores), or even in multi-component systems.

Organizers: Julie Albert (Tulane University), George Floudas (University of Ioannina)

1.1.15: Polymer Nanocomposites: from nano to meso (DPOLY)

This focus session highlights new developments in polymer nanocomposites associated with the addition of mesoscopic length scales. Such work could include use of meso-sized particles or mesoscopic objects made from nanoparticles within a homogeneous polymer matrix. Other approaches include organizing or sequestering nanoparticles within mesoscopic regions, such as placement within block co-polymer phases, spontaneous rejection of nanoparticles from crystalline regions, or selective layering. Use of nanocomposite polymeric nanofibers alone or as reinforcement within a larger matrix also results in the presence of multiple size scales. Such hierarchical structures may be desired to produce a bio-inspired material or to manipulate light scattering or photonic interactions. Studies of innate changes due to particle size, such as alterations of polymer and particle dynamics due to the presence of nanoparticles, are also welcome.

Organizers: Laura Clarke (NC State), Rob Riggleman (University of Pennsylvania)

1.1.16: Polymers adsorbed on to solids - Interplay among structures, dynamics, and properties (DPOLY)

The formation of stable solid-polymer melt interfaces plays crucial roles in the processing of polymer nanocomposites and thin polymer films. There is now growing evidence that polymer chains irreversibly adsorb even on to weakly attractive solid surfaces, and that controlling the formation of these nanometer-thick adsorbed layers allows the engineering of advanced polymeric materials. This session focuses on recent theoretical, computational, and experimental progress in understanding the physics of the irreversible adsorption; the interplay among processing, structures, and dynamics in the buried interfacial layers; and the impact of the adsorbed layers on the mechanical and physical properties of thin films and nanocomposites.

Organizer: Tad Koga (Stony Brook University)

1.1.17: Polymers for energy storage and conversion (DPOLY)

A wide range of electron conducting and ion conducting polymers find use in energy applications such as solar cells, batteries, and supercapacitors. Exploring structure-property relationships and developing strategies to control the micro- to meso-scale structure to lead to desirable properties is of prime importance. This focus session will showcase recent advances relating to understanding or improving polymer properties, especially charge or ion transport, in any energy storage or conversion application. Both modeling and experimental studies are welcome.

Organizer: Lisa Hall (Ohio State)

1.1.18: Symposium Honoring E.J. Kramer (DPOLY)

This focus session will cover three areas of research in which Professor Kramer inspired a generation of scientists . Sessions 1, 2 and 3 will be devoted to polymer surfaces, interfaces, and mechanics, polymer dynamics and polymer assembly, respectively. Each session will begin with an invited talk that links the past to the present to the future knowledge in this area. Each invited talk would be followed by a contributed session following the appropriate sorting category(ies). The focus of contributed talks will be on the current state of understanding that Professor Kramer contributed to during his productive and impactful life. Contributed talks by a broad polymer physics community and younger scientists are particularly encouraged to acknowledge that Professor Kramer's passion for science transcended boundaries. Standard sorting categories include but are not limited to polymeric glasses, polymer melts and solutions, polymeric elastomers and gels, physics of copolymers, conjugated polymers, polymer blends, polymer composites, surfaces, interfaces and polymeric thin films. Invited speakers include Glenn Fredrickson, Michael Rubinstein, and Richard Register.

Organizers: Russell Composto (University of Pennsylvania), Rachel Segalman (University of California, Santa Barbara)

1.1.19: Tuning Polymer Rheology for Printing, Spinning, or Coating Applications (DPOLY)

The focus session highlights the recent progress and challenges in tuning polymer shear, extensional and interfacial rheology for printing, spinning or coating applications. Of particular interest are studies aimed at characterizing and optimizing the rheological response for understanding and controlling viscoelastic free surface flows underlying liquid transfer and drop, film or fiber deposition. Contributions are solicited for research on the interplay of macromolecular hydrodynamics, non-Newtonian fluid mechanics, capillarity and processing conditions for printing of solar cells, electronics and scaffolds, direct-ink writing, 3D printing, centrifugal spinning, gravure printing, electro-spinning, microfluidic drop/particle formation, and additive manufacturing. The session welcomes experimental, theoretical, or computational approaches highlighting how polymer charge, elasticity, extensibility, flexibility and chemistry influence their rheology and processability.

Organizer: Vivek Sharma (University of Illinois at Chicago)

1.1.20: Creating function through geometry: from 3D printing to programmable matter and beyond (GSOFT/DPOLY/GSNP/FIAP) [same as 2.1.17, 3.1.25]

The problem of designing and creating a prescribed shape is a truly multidisciplinary challenge: ranging from free form manufacturing techniques to designing and predicting mechanical and physical properties. In 3D printing, recent efforts have focused on adding an extra “dimension” to the prints: via the introduction of gradients in material properties or composite inks; creating programmable shape change in an object once printed; using living tissue as ink and scaffold for biomedical engineering; printing functional material which can sense, actuate, or conduct; or developing new routes to fabrication, such as harnessing instabilities. Likewise, fields such as soft robotics, 4D printing and mechanical metamaterials strive to use specific geometries to create designer shapes and material properties. Yet, underlying all of these goals lies the mathematical inverse problem: how might one design and create an object that dynamically transforms into a specific target shape? Achieving this goal requires a truly interdisciplinary effort at the cusp of materials science, theoretical mechanics, mathematics and computer science. This focus session highlights the creation of function through geometry, through efforts both theoretical and experimental and across such fields as 3D printing, programmable matter, and the mathematical inverse problem of designing and creating targeted shape change.

Organizers: P.-T. Brun (MIT), Elisabetta A. Matsumoto (Harvard University), Frederick Gosselin (Polytechnique Montreal), Johannes T. B. Overvelde (FOM Institute AMOLF)

1.1.21: Physics at bio-nano interface (DBIO/DPOLY) [same as 4.1.18]

Understanding bio-nano interactions are essential to optimize the design of a synthetic bio-sensor or a novel nano-medicine. In this session, speakers will present experimental, theoretical and numerical approaches to study the bio-nano interactions.

Organizer: Binquan Luan (IBM T J Watson Research)

1.1.22: Theory and Simulation of Fiber-Based Materials (DCOMP/DMP/DPOLY) [same as 16.1.3]

Fibers are the basic blocks of a wide range of synthetic and natural materials. While the physical behavior of isolated fibers is well-developed, the collective structure and emergent behaviors of fiber-based materials are less understood. The theory and simulation of these materials is a cross-disciplinary area of research, with computational methods spanning atomistic, mesoscopic, and continuum scales. It is actively being pursued in multiple areas of science, including materials science and polymer physics. This Focus Topic brings together researchers working in these areas to develop synergies and to further the theory and simulation of fiber-based materials in an interconnected manner.

Organizers: Traian Dumitrica(University of Minnesota), Catalin Picu(Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute), Gregory Grason (University of Massachusetts)

1.1.23: The structure and dynamics of confined biopolymers (DBIO/DPOLY) [same as 4.1.16]

The advent of soft lithography and the ability to construct nanopores have created a variety of new experimental platforms to study biopolymers, with potential for rapid gene sequencing. Real world applications require a deep understanding of the conformations and dynamics of biopolymers under confinement, potentially complicated by external fields, intra-chain interactions, or hydrodynamics. This session will bring together experimental and theoretical researchers to discuss current experimental setups, simulation techniques, and theoretical knowledge.

Organizer: Greg Morrison (University of Houston)

1.1.24: New Mesophase Symmetries and Topologies in Self-Assembled Soft Matter (GSOFT/DBIO/DPOLY) [same as 2.1.18, 4.1.25]

The ever-growing variety of ordered morphologies accessible from spontaneous self-assembly remains a fascinating area of soft materials research, relevant to block polymers, binary and ternary lipid systems, thermotropic liquid crystals, colloids and many more. Many new topologies and symmetries in soft matter have been recently reported, including tetrahedrally closest-packed and low symmetry Frank-Kasper phases, soft quasicrystals, a variety of low symmetry bicontinuous and polycontinuous network phase structures, and disordered variants such as the sponge phases. This focus session addresses the formation of new mesophase structures, their functional properties and their relevance for biotechnological applications and their role in biological membrane and nanostructure systems.

Organizers: Gerd Schröder-Turk (Murdoch University), Annela Seddon (Bristol), Mahesh K. Mahanthapa (University of Minnesota), Cecilia Leal (University of Illinois)

2: SOFT CONDENSED MATTER (GSOFT)

2.1.1: Mechanics and non-linear rheology of soft gels

Gels with tunable mechanical properties and rheological behavior are at the core of new material technologies. All soft matter, in fact, from proteins to colloids or polymers, easily self-assemble into these weakly elastic solids. The nanoscale size of their building blocks make their structure quite sensitive to thermal fluctuation, with a rich relaxation dynamics associated to spontaneous and thermally activated processes. In addition to affecting the time evolution, or aging, of the material properties at rest, those dynamical processes also interplay with an applied deformation and are crucial for their mechanical response. The result is a complex rheological behavior, with diverse, unexpected and strongly non-linear features (shear localization, stiffening, fracture…).

The Focus session will bring together a growing community of physicists trying to gain new insight into how the complex nanoscale structure and the dynamical processes built into it affect the mechanical response in this class of materials, ranging from colloidal to protein gels.

Organizers: Emanuela Del Gado (Georgetown University) and Daniel Blair (Georgetown University)

2.1.2: Knotting in Filaments and Fields

In a broad range of physical, biological and chemical settings complex structures involving knots arise naturally, or can be controllably created. Complementary advances in theory, simulation and experiment have lead to a revival of interest in knotted configurations of macromolecules (including polymers and DNA), of vortices (in fluids, optical beams and reaction-diffusion systems), and defects and textures in ordered materials (including Bose-Einstein condensates and liquid crystals). In soft materials, they represent new physical states in which topology is a defining feature, both in describing the state and characterising its physical properties. Knots influence the mobility of polymers in gel electrophoresis, have implications in fluid turbulence, encode global information in structured light, and offer a route to topologically based liquid crystal photonic elements. In addition to understanding the types of knot that can arise under different conditions and how to manipulate them, there is focus on their dynamics, as well as their implications, and potential applications, in novel topological states of soft materials.

Organizers: Mark Dennis (University of Bristol), Gareth Alexander (University of Bristol), and David Foster (University of Bristol)

2.1.3: Active matter under confinement (GSOFT, DBIO, GSNP) [same as 3.1.3, 4.1.6]

The field of active matter has shed new light on the mechanics of biological systems, and provided design principles for a new class of energy-consuming artificial materials. These collections of self-organized actuators are quite sensitive to the nature and geometry of their confinement, allowing for enhanced control of their behavior. This session focuses on the effect of confinement on active systems and the various behaviors they exhibit, including clustering, swarming, phase separation, and defect formation.

Organizers: I. Bruss University of Michigan), Y. Fily (Brandeis University)

2.1.4: Jamming of particulate matter (GSOFT, GSNP) [same as 3.1.4]

This focus session will highlight recent progress in understanding jamming and unjamming phenomena in dense particulate materials including colloids, foams, and granular media. Key aspects of jamming that will be explored in this session include the structure of configuration space, collective particle rearrangements, avalanche behavior, rigidity, and growing length and time scales of systems near jamming onset. Both theoretical and experimental contributions are welcome.

Organizer: C.S. O’Hern (Yale Univesrity)

2.1.5: Continuum descriptions of discrete materials (GSOFT, GSNP) [same as 3.1.5]

Many materials of interest in basic and applied physics have a coarse microstructure, such as granular materials, foams, suspensions, emulsions, and glasses. To model these materials at the large-scale, continuum formulations have been sought after to represent the homogenized effects of a large number of microscopic interactions. While extremely useful and expeditious for simulation purposes, the derivation of valid continuum models for particulate media remains challenging. Issues such as jamming, non-locality, intermittency, temperature analogies, homogenization scales, and shear banding have proven to be complex and important topics when constructing continuum descriptions for these materials. This focus session shall discuss the current state of research in continuum approaches for discrete materials, mixing aspects of statistical, fluid, and solid mechanics with discrete particle physics.

David Henann (Brown University) and Ken Kamrin (MIT)

2.1.6: Complex phases: colloids and alloys (GSOFT, GSNP) [same as 3.1.6]

Ordered, nonperiodic phases of matter occur in natural materials and aggregates of fabricated particles, posing challenges to fundamental theories of phase stability and formation, expanding the range of accessible engineered materials, and raising the possibility of novel physical properties. This session aims to highlight work on quasicrystals and incommensurate materials, limit-periodic phases, hyperuniform systems, and complex self-assembling structures. Topics will include geometric and thermodynamic properties, growth kinetics and assembly protocols, targeted design of constituent particles, and spectral and transport properties. The session will provide a forum for sharing insights emerging from studies of different types of materials, from atomic alloys, to shaped nanoparticles, micron-scale colloidal particles with designed shapes or interactions, and manufactured macroscopic structures.

Organizer: D.A. Egolf (Georgetown University)

2.1.7: Acoustic ‐ Field Driven Colloidal Assembly

Recent years have seen marked progress in the development of acoustics-based methods for assembling colloidal particles in suspensions. The approach, which has potential for programming the fast and reproducible organization of soft matter, also presents a number of computational and theoretical challenges. This focus session welcomes presentations from all perspectives about advances in the field.

Organizer: Patrick Charbonneau (Duke University)

2.1.8: Mechanical metamaterials (GSOFT, GNSP) [same as 3.1.8]

The field of Mechanical Metamaterials lies at the cusp between physics, engineering and mathematics. In the last few years, that the field has seen an explosion of activities, including the creation of materials with negative compressibility, switchable materials, acoustic cloaking and programmable materials. Besides presenting an overview of current ideas and efforts, this session aims at bringing together researchers from diverse backgrounds to forge new interdisciplinary connections.

Organizers: Katia Bertoldi (Harvard University), Martin van Hecke

2.1.9: Tough Hydrogels (GSOFT, DPOLY) [same as 1.1.8]

Hydrogels, polymer networks that typically contain more water than the original polymer weight, are extensively explored for diverse applications, including contact lenses, wound dressings, cosmetics, and scaffolds for tissue engineering. Natural hydrogels, such as muscles and cartilage, are robust and tough; however, applications for synthetic hydrogels have historically been limited by its brittle nature. During the last decade, there has been extensive research in improving the mechanical properties of hydrogels. Owing to interdisciplinary research efforts that encompasses the studies on fracture mechanics, structure/property relations, cross-linking chemistry for effective energy dissipation, and extreme elasticity, many hydrogel species have shown significant enhancement. The enhanced mechanical properties of tough hydrogels has triggered rapid utilization in unprecedented applications, such as bio-implantable electronics and prosthetics, 3D printable hydrogels, sensors/actuators in soft machines, surgical glues, and gel electrolytes for energy storage devices. In this focus session, I project to collect state-of-the-art research on tough hydrogels in polymer and soft-matter physics disciplines. This session will provide an opportunity to present the most recent advances in tough hydrogels, and their next-generation functionalities and applications.

Organizers: Hyun-Joong Chung (University of Alberta), Daniel King (Hokkaido University)

2.1.10: Physics of Polymer Surfaces and Interfaces: Adhesion, Release, Anti-Fouling, and Self-Cleaning Principles (DPOLY, GSOFT) [same as 1.1.11]

Physics of polymer surfaces and interfaces are relevant to academia and industry. In many applications, important properties such as adhesion, wetting, and fouling prevention depend crucially on the structure and molecular characteristics of polymers at surfaces or interfaces. Confinement effects (both in scale and geometry) add complexity to the physics and mechanics of polymeric interfaces, where chain structure and dynamics often deviate from mean field behavior. Nature offers interesting patterns, such as the lotus leaf (for superhydrophobicity) or gecko foot (for controlled adhesion), which provide unique interfacial properties due to their structure. Better understanding of these patterns and their working can help develop new and improved materials and applications. This session will focus on design through composition, structure or topology that influences how a polymeric surface or interface interacts with its surroundings. Topics of interest include purely synthetic, bio-inspired, or purely biological polymers, as well as experimental and theoretical investigations of the mechanism of adhesion and release between polymeric surfaces/interfaces and contacting materials.

Organizers: Tirtha Chatterjee (Dow Chemical), Jodi Mecca (Dow Chemical), Jeff Wilbur (jdwilbur@dow.com), Al Crosby (University of Massachusetts)

2.1.11: Robophysics (GSOFT, GSNP) [same as 3.1.11]

Physical robots are moving from the factory floor and into our lives (autonomous cars, homecare assistants, search and rescue devices, etc). However, despite the fascinating questions such future “living systems” pose for scientists, the study of such systems has been dominated by engineers and computer scientists. The purpose of Focus Session is to bring together researchers studying robots, dynamical systems, control theory, soft materials and living systems to discover novel dynamics in such self-propelled systems, and to discover principles which will allow future devices to interact with the real world in qualitatively different ways than they do now.

Organizer: Dan Goldman (Georgia Tech University)

2.1.12: Physics of Bio-Inspired Materials (GSOFT, DBIO) [same as 4.1.30]

Recent years have witnessed a wave of renewed interest in designing bioinspired materials and structures especially accompanying with the rapid development of modern fabrication technology, such as nanofabrication and 3D printing. Understanding the physics governing formation of novel bioinspired structures and their stimuli-responsive behaviors is the key challenge to advance their design and uncover their potential.

The goal of this session is to create a platform for experts working on bioinspired materials, to discuss about the novel physics problems across different length scales and properties. This session will become a unique forum that not only provides the physical understanding of bioinspired materials, but also offers physical insights to advance the design of future bioinspired systems for broad applications by addressing the current scientific and technological challenges.

Organizers: Sung Hoon Kang (Johns Hopkins University), Qiming Wang (University of Southern California), Kyoo-Chul (Kenneth) Park (Northwestern University), Ling Li (Harvard University), Megan T. Valentine (University of California-Santa Barbara), Niels Holten-Andersen (MIT)

2.1.13: Physics of liquids (GSOFT, GSNP) [same as 3.1.22]

Liquids, ubiquitous on earth, are prototypical disordered condensed matter. However, the physics of liquids is far from being completely understood. This session aims to provide a general forum at APS covering all aspects of the classical and quantum physics of liquids of all kinds. Topics from fresh theoretical treatments and computation methods to cutting-edge experimental techniques on any type of liquids and liquid-like matter are all welcome.

Organizers: Yang Zhang (Univeristy of Illinois, Urbana-Champaigne), H. Eugene Stanley (Boston University), C. Austen Angell (Arizona State University)

2.1.14: Mechanical singularities in soft matter (GSOFT, GSNP) [same as 3.1.23]

Soft materials are easily pushed to extreme mechanical states. This is naturally the case in fracture and friction, where strain localization around crack tips leads to singular stress fields, and where energy injected at the macroscopic scale is transported all the way down to the atomic scale where dissipation occurs by the irreversible breakage of individual bonds. A similar kind of physics play a role in a broad variety of related problems involving instabilities in swelling polymers and growing tissues, but also in adhesion and wetting dynamics on soft surfaces. Understanding the physics of materials under such extreme conditions is challenging, because it covers a huge range of length scales, and requires strongly non-linear and out-of-equilibrium approaches. Recent developments and new experimental and theoretical tools make it possible to study these phenomena with increasing resolution. The goal of this focus session is to highlight recent developments on mechanical singularities in soft matter, viewed from different communities such as fluid physics, interfaces, fracture physics, and soft matter.

Organizers: Joshua Dijksman (Wageningen UR), Jasper van der Gucht (Wageningen UR), Jacco Snoeijer University of Twente)

2.1.15: Organization of soft materials far from equilibrium (GSOFT, GSNP) [same as 4.1.31, 3.1.24]

Out-of-equilibrium statistical mechanics present the contemporary theoretical and experimental challenges in soft matter physics and play a pivotal role in nature. The objective of this focus session is to present new and noteworthy studies in the fields of collective structural formation, flow and organization of soft materials when the system is far from equilibrium. Dynamical aspects of the self-assembly of gels, polymers, and membranes will be covered with a balanced emphasis on novel theories, computational science, and experiments. This focus session will encourage the dissemination of unpublished and recent results that will stimulate productive discussions and attendance. Our invited speaker, Professor Rebecca Schulman, will present her recent studies on the active control of complex, multicomponent processes imparting self-assembly of materials in nature.

Organizers: Roy Beck (Tel Aviv University) and Cecilia Leal (University of Illinois)

2.1.16: Creating function through geometry: from 3D printing to programmable matter and beyond (GSOFT, DPOLY, GSNP, FIAP) [same as 3.1.25, 1.1.20]

Form and function are inextricably linked throughout physics, materials science and mathematics. Complex geometries often help dictate the physical and material properties of objects. Our symposium aims to unite multidisciplinary approaches to generating specific geometries and using them to design properties, focusing on methods ranging from new materials and techniques in 3D printing to mathematical approaches to the inverse problem of designing physical properties from intricate geometries.

Organizers: P.-T. Brun (MIT) , Elisabetta A. Matsumoto, Frederick Gosselin (Polytechnique Montreal)) and Johannes T. B. Overvelde (AMOLF)

2.1.17: New Mesophase Symmetries and Topologies in Self-Assembled Soft Matter (GSOFT, DBIO) [same as 4.1.25]

The ever-growing variety of ordered morphologies accessible from spontaneous self-assembly remains a fascinating area of soft materials research, relevant to block polymers, binary and ternary lipid systems, thermotropic liquid crystals, colloids and many more. Many new topologies and symmetries in soft matter have been recently reported, including tetrahedrally closest-packed and low symmetry Frank-Kasper phases, soft quasicrystals, a variety of low symmetry bicontinuous and polycontinuous network phase structures, and disordered variants such as the sponge phases. This focus session addresses the formation of new mesophase structures, their functional properties and their relevance for biotechnological applications and their role in biological membrane and nanostructure systems.

Organisers: Gerd Schröder-Turk (Murdoch University, Australia), Annela Seddon (Bristol University, UK), Mahesh K. Mahanthapa (University of Minnesota), Cecilia Leal (University of Illinois)

2.1.18: Multimodal characterization of soft materials in complex environments (DPOLY, GSOFT) [same as 1.1.6]

Soft materials are materials that can be deformed at about room temperature, including liquids, glasses, complex fluids, polymers, foams, gels, colloids, granular materials, as well as most soft biological materials. This class of materials is defined by complexity, where structure is usually defined in terms of time scale. As a result, many manufacturing processes occur far from equilibrium and in complex environments. Small variations in processing parameters can drastically change material properties, such as in-operando batteries and fuel cells, organics electronics, photocatalysis, biomedicine, biological/hybrid assemblies, and so on. Therefore, the knowledge on both structure and dynamics is required to have a molecular understanding of the associated phenomena. The multimodal characterization of the structure and response of these materials are desired to meet the emerging needs of manufacturers to develop higher functionality, higher value products based on increasingly complex soft materials. This section on soft materials will be dedicated to discuss the extraction of the chemical distribution and spatial arrangement of constituent elements and functional groups at multiple length scales and, thus, the examination of collective dynamics, transport, and electronic ordering phenomena. Traditional measures of structure in soft materials have relied heavily on scattering and imaging based techniques due to their capacity to measure nanoscale dimensions and their capacity to monitor structure under conditions of dynamic stress loading. Special attentions are planned to focus on the application of resonant x-ray scattering, contrast-varied neutron scattering, analytical transmission electron microscopy, and their combinations. This session aims to bring experts in both scattering and electron microscope fields to discuss recent advances in selectively characterizing structural architectures of complex soft materials, which have often multi-components with a wide range of length scales and multiple functionalities, and thus hopes to foster novel ideas to decipher a higher level of structural complexity in soft materials in future.

Organizers: Wei Chen (Argonne National Lab), Cheng Wang (Lawrence Berkeley National Lab), Matthew Tirrell (University of Chicago)

3: STATISTICAL AND NONLINEAR PHYSICS (GSNP)

3.1.1: Collective dynamics: Fluid physics of life (GSNP, DBIO) [same as 4.1.27]

Fluid based transport is a ubiquitous and essential process of life. Without motion of or within fluids (i.e., in a world of pure diffusion) life in the form we know it would not exist. Indeed, higher organisms would not be possible. Any efficient transport mechanisms of substances in nature use fluid flows which are out of equilibrium and show complex self-organizing behavior. Realizations are multifold — from transport of fluids in plants (for example cilia driven, capillary driven, gravity driven) to transport in insects and mammals, all the way to the very large like bio-convection in the oceans. At the same time, life uses fluids for active transport, i.e. swimming. Well known examples are in the propulsion of bacteria, sperm, volvox, and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and also the swimming/flying of larger animals ranging from insects to fish to mammals. Advances in measurement and computational technology, together with new developments in the theoretical physics of complex system, are making it possible to investigate the fundamental "Fluid Physics of Life". It is the purpose of this focus session to bring together physicists and scientists working in this area to exchange ideas and to advance our knowledge.

Organizers: N.T. Ouellette (Stanford University), D.A. Egolf (Georgetown University)

3.1.2: Statistical mechanics of active matter (GSNP, DBIO) [same as 4.1.28]

There has been significant interest in recent years in the dynamics of active matter — that is, materials whose constituent elements both consume and dissipate energy locally and have nontrivial internal degrees of freedom. Examples of active matter range from chemically active colloidal particles to colonies of cells, and even potentially to collective groups of larger animals such as flocks of birds or swarms of insects. Understanding how to scale up from the microscopic interactions between active units to the macroscopic properties of an entire system has proved to be quite challenging since many of the underlying assumptions in classical statistical mechanics fail in this case. This focus session will bring together researchers, both theoretical and experimental, engaged in developing new methods for understanding active matter.

Organizer: D.A. Egolf (Georgetown University)

3.1.3: Active matter under confinement (GSNP, GSOFT, DBIO) [same as 2.1.3, 4.1.6]

The field of active matter has shed new light on the mechanics of biological systems, and provided design principles for a new class of energy-consuming artificial materials. These collections of self-organized actuators are quite sensitive to the nature and geometry of their confinement, allowing for enhanced control of their behavior. This session focuses on the effect of confinement on active systems and the various behaviors they exhibit, including clustering, swarming, phase separation, and defect formation.

Organizers: I. Bruss (University of Michigan), Y. Fily (Brandeis University)

3.1.4: Jamming of particular matter (GSNP, GSOFT) [same as 2.1.4]

This focus session will highlight recent progress in understanding jamming and unjamming phenomena in dense particulate materials including colloids, foams, and granular media. Key aspects of jamming that will be explored in this session include the structure of configuration space, collective particle rearrangements, avalanche behavior, rigidity, and growing length and time scales of systems near jamming onset. Both theoretical and experimental contributions are welcome.

Organizer: C.S. O’Hern (Yale University)

3.1.5: Continuum descriptions of discrete materials (GSOFT, GSNP) [same as 2.1.5]

Many materials of interest in basic and applied physics have a coarse microstructure, such as granular materials, foams, suspensions, emulsions, and glasses. To model these materials at the large-scale, continuum formulations have been sought after to represent the homogenized effects of a large number of microscopic interactions. While extremely useful and expeditious for simulation purposes, the derivation of valid continuum models for particulate media remains challenging. Issues such as jamming, non-locality, intermittency, temperature analogies, homogenization scales, and shear banding have proven to be complex and important topics when constructing continuum descriptions for these materials. This focus session shall discuss the current state of research in continuum approaches for discrete materials, mixing aspects of statistical, fluid, and solid mechanics with discrete particle physics.

Organizers: D. Henann (Brown University), K. Kamrin (MIT)

3.1.6: Complex phases: colloids and alloys (GSNP, GSOFT) [same as 2.1.6]

Ordered, nonperiodic phases of matter occur in natural materials and aggregates of fabricated particles, posing challenges to fundamental theories of phase stability and formation, expanding the range of accessible engineered materials, and raising the possibility of novel physical properties. This session aims to highlight work on quasicrystals and incommensurate materials, limit-periodic phases, hyperuniform systems, and complex self-assembling structures. Topics will include geometric and thermodynamic properties, growth kinetics and assembly protocols, targeted design of constituent particles, and spectral and transport properties. The session will provide a forum for sharing insights emerging from studies of different types of materials, from atomic alloys, to shaped nanoparticles, micron-scale colloidal particles with designed shapes or interactions, and manufactured macroscopic structures.

Organizer: D.A. Egolf (Georgetown University)

3.1.7: Geometry and topology in mechanics

Though geometrical methods have long been important to our understanding of mechanics, topology has played a lesser role despite the mathematical bond it shares with geometry. A recent flurry of activity has uncovered a number of new and exciting developments at the interface between geometry, topology and mechanics. Among them are the discovery of mechanical topological insulators, kirigami and origami based metamaterials, curvature controlled pattern formation in thin sheets or monolayers and their surprising connections. These ideas have found immediate realisation in simple table top experiments involving linkages, cellular structures, geared metamaterials, origamis, thin sheets and systems of coupled gyroscopes or pendula. One of the highlights of this research is the ability to program the response of a mechanical system (eg. deformations, sound propagation or failure) in robust ways that are often insensitive to variations in materials parameters and immune to the presence of disorder because the existence of the desired property is guaranteed by the presence of a topological invariant. A key example is the recent creation of topologically protected acoustic waveguides that exist at the edge of mechanical topological insulators. Largely unexplored new phenomena occur when these topological tools are married to the intrinsic nonlinear response of mechanical structures. This focus session will bring together the community interested in the dramatic interplay between topology, geometry and mechanics with those interested in applying new tools to design functional mechanical metamaterials, origami-based mechanisms and driven or active mechanical structures for topological acoustics.

Organizers: C. Santangelo (University of Massachusetts), V. Vitelli (Universiteit Leiden)

3.1.8: Mechanical metamaterials (GSNP, GSOFT) [same as 2.1.8]

The field of Mechanical Metamaterials lies at the cusp between physics, engineering and mathematics. The earliest examples of mechanical metamaterials date back to the late 80's, when auxetic (negative Poisson ratio) materials where discovered and created. But it is only in the last few years, that the field has seen an explosion of activities, including the creation of materials with negative compressibility, switchable materials, acoustic cloaking and programmable materials. Besides presenting an overview of current ideas and efforts, this session aims at bringing together researchers from diverse backgrounds to forge new interdisciplinary connections.

Organizers: K. Bertoldi (Harvard University, M. van Hecke (Universiteit Leiden)

3.1.9: Extreme mechanics of shells

Shells are ubiquitous as both natural and engineered structures, including viral capsids, pollen grains, colloidosomes, pharmaceutical capsules, exoskeletons, mammalian skulls, pressure vessels, and architectural domes. In addition to their aesthetically appealing form, shells offer outstanding structural performance. The study of the mechanics of shells has a long tradition in engineering mechanics, with an emphasis on infinitesimal deformation in the linear regime, the onset of buckling, and its sensitivity to imperfections. In this context, buckling is classically regarded as the onset of failure. More recently, there has been a burgeoning revival in the study of the mechanics of shells, with a focus on the geometrically nonlinear deformations. One commonality of these contemporary studies is that the large reconfigurations that arise in the post-buckling regime can be exploited for reversible functional mechanisms, including: surface patterning, shape morphing, localization, folding, lock-and-key self-assembly, stretchable substrates for curvilinear electronics and lenses with tunable focusing. A fundamental challenge in these efforts is that the shell mechanics is inextricably connected to isometric deformations of the underlying curved surface, since stretching is energetically more costly than bending. Developing predictive frameworks that establish a connection between their mechanical response and the differential geometry of the underlying curved surfaces is a challenging endeavor. Recent advances in experimental techniques, computational tools and theoretical approaches have all, in concert, been leading to new important contributions on the mechanics of shells.

Organizers: P.M. Reis (preis@mit.edu), F.L. Jimenez (MIT), J. Marthelot (MIT)

3.1.10: Physical properties of the bacterial cytoplasm (GSNP, DBIO) [same as 4.1.29]

The bacterial cytoplasm presents a unique example of complex active matter: it is highly crowded by compact particles as well as large polymers, it is highly polydisperse over nm to μm length scales, and cellular activity typically maintains it far from thermodynamic equilibrium. In addition, constituents of the cytoplasm exhibit a wide range of interactions, from weak interactions to long-lived binding that span picosecond to hour time scales. Fundamental questions regarding the material properties and physical phenomena arising in the bacterial cytoplasm are rapidly driving the development of a new field of research and attracting a wide range of scientists including biophysicists, material scientists, bioengineers and molecular biologists. This focus session seeks to attract talks spanning experimental and theoretical work with an emphasis on experimental investigations of material properties by a variety of approaches from passive rheology to spectroscopic techniques in live-cells and reconstituted systems, as well as on theoretical and computational studies of cytoplasm dynamics. Talks on collective phenomena in the cytoplasm and on non-equilibrium thermodynamics will also be of interest. In addition, the session welcomes discussions on how physical properties and dynamics of the cytoplasm affect cellular function.

Organizer: C.S. O’Hern (Yale University)

3.1.11: Robophysics (GSNP, GSOFT) [same as 2.1.11]

Physical robots are moving from the factory floor and into our lives (autonomous cars, homecare assistants, search and rescue devices, etc). However, despite the fascinating questions such future “living systems” pose for scientists, the study of such systems has been dominated by engineers and computer scientists. The purpose of Focus Session is to bring together researchers studying robots, dynamical systems, control theory, soft materials and living systems to discover novel dynamics in such self-propelled systems, and to discover principles which will allow future devices to interact with the real world in qualitatively different ways than they do now.

Organizer: D. Goldman (Georgia Tech University)

3.1.12: Symmetries in network dynamics

The recent recognition that even a random network tends to exhibit a large number of structural symmetries has generated significant interests in understanding the possible relations between those symmetries and dynamical processes taking place in the network. Synchronization dynamics has been at the forefront of this new line of research owing to the discovery of novel symmetry-induced phenomena such as cluster synchronization, remote synchronization, relay synchronization, and chimera states, just to name a few. This focus session will bring together people working on these problems to report on very recent theoretical and experimental discoveries.

Organizer: T. Nishikawa (Northwestern University)

3.1.13: Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics and quantum information (GSNP, GQI)

Nanoscale systems are susceptible to severe, thermal fluctuations because of their small size. Recent developments in the field of stochastic thermodynamics have shown that nevertheless the concepts of heat, entropy, free energy, and entropy production can be meaningfully introduced to characterize their dynamics. A variety of exact, analytical relations have been derived the prime example being the Jarzynski equality where the free energy difference between two equilibrium states can be exactly related to the statistics of work in arbitrarily far from equilibrium processes. While these studies have led to a detailed understanding of the nonequilibrium dynamics of classical systems, much remains to be done for quantum mechanical systems, a topic under intense research of late. For example, unlike classical systems, work is not an observable for quantum mechanical systems and any measurement of energy to find work changes also the entropy of the system. These developments are particularly important in the description and design of quantum information processing devices. Landauer has shown that the thermodynamic cost of writing or erasing one bit of information is no less than kT ln2. For small devices and in quantum computers this is not a negligible amount of energy, and a proper thermodynamic treatment of quantum computing devices is instrumental. We believe that insights from the field of quantum information theory will be useful in the extension of fluctuation theorems and stochastic thermodynamics to quantum mechanical systems, which operate far from thermal equilibrium and process information.

Organizers: S. Deffner (University of Maryland, Baltimore County), D. Mandal (University of California, Berkeley)

3.1.14: Inferring dynamical models of biological systems from data (DBIO, GSNP) [same as 16.1.12]

For inanimate systems, it’s often not that hard to write down the equations describing the underlying dynamics using the first principles (solving them, of course, is much harder). For biological systems, microscopic first-principles based descriptions are too unwieldy, and macroscopic, phenomenological laws are few and far between. There’s a growing body of literature focused on “guessing” such phenomenological laws directly from data. (Parenthetically, the same is true for many other complex systems, such as various social systems, as has been seen in the burgeoning field of econophysics.) This session will be a venue for sharing new results on inferences of dynamical models of biological systems from data, focusing on multitude of scales from cellular networks, to ecology. The focus will be on domain discoveries, and not on methods development.

Organizer: I. Nemenman (Emory University)

3.1.15: Self-organization in bacteria colonies and suspensions (DBIO, GSNP) [same as 4.1.5]

Active matter is a fast developing field of interdisciplinary research dealing with out of equilibrium systems composed of many interacting units that dissipate energy at the local scale and collectively generate motion or mechanical stress. Many different natural phenomena can be put under this very broad umbrella: from spectacular animal group motion to intracellular dynamics and mechanics of the cytoskeleton, biology is involved at all scales. The collective behavior of bacteria, in colonies and/or suspensions, continues to reveal spectacular phenomena at very large-scales. These experiments naturally have their own intrinsic value in biology, but they are now often undertaken to realize/test theoretical ideas and results obtained within the physics of active matter. One such example is the long-range nematic order and ‘giant’ number fluctuations exhibited by filamentous E. coli cells swimming in a very thin fluid layer reported recently by the group of Sano in Tokyo: this system possibly constitutes the very first large-scale realization of a Vicsek active nematic (from the emblematic minimal model for collective motion introduced by Vicsek et al in 1995). We are aware of a growing number of, new, experimental results with similarly impressive collective dynamics, which will be presented in this focus session.

Organizer: H. Chate (CEA)

3.1.16: Non-equilibrium dynamics of neural circuits (DBIO, GSNP) [same as 4.1.9]

This session will discuss how statistics of connectivity in neural networks influences its functional properties, including transition to chaotic behavior, transient amplification, short-term memory and others. There is a long trandition of modeling neural circuits using Ising-type models and tools from random matrix theory. Recent advances in the theory of random matrices, in particular for non-normal connectivity matrices highlight how network plasticity can have a major impact on network function. Recent results also open new avenues for network engineering. Given that similar approaches were used to model intracellular processing, this focus session should be of interest to other subfields of physics outside of neuroscience.

Organizer: T.O. Sharpee (Salk Institute for Biological Studies)

3.1.17: Physics of genome organization: from DNA to chromatin (DBIO, GSNP) [same as 4.1.12]

Information needed by all cells to survive and proliferate is encoded in the sequence of nucleotides in genomic DNA. In eukaryotes, DNA is packaged into chromatin — a complex multi-scale structure which ensures that all chromosomes fit into the tight confines of the cell nucleus. However, DNA in this packaged state must either remain accessible to various DNA-binding proteins such as transcription factors (which turn genes on and off), or be made accessible rapidly and robustly in response to various challenges facing the cell throughout its life cycle. This dilemma of packaging and accessibility has recently attracted a lot of attention from the biological physics community, with methods from polymer physics, statistical mechanics, and condensed matter physics being applied to understand DNA folding and dynamics, as well as chromatin structure and function. This session will focus on the latest developments in this rapidly advancing field, bringing together experimental and theoretical scientists in the fields of chromatin and DNA.

A.V. Morozov (Rutgers University, L. Mirny (MIT)

3.1.18: Statistical mechanics applied to ecology (DBIO, GSNP) [same as 4.1.14]

Tools of statistical mechanics applied to problems in ecology, such as understanding biodiversity. The subject is of great societal importance even as we find ourselves in the midst of an extinction crisis. Ideas from physics play a key role in this interdisciplinary field. It has been a long time since such topics have been discussed at APS Meetings.

Organizer: M. Cieplak (Institute of Physics PAS)

3.1.19: Physics of cellular organization (DBIO, GSNP) [same as 4.1.20]

The keynote talks of this session will highlight the role of cooperative motility in live cell vesicle transport and how structural defects can affect long-range transport. This year builds on the 2015 session which highlighted the synergy of spatial and temporal heterogeneity at different scales, as well as the 2016 session which highlighted the role of cytoskeleton dynamics in cellular function. In this session we will emphasize to negative role of perturbations across different scales of cellular organization; from transport along cytoskeletal networks to the influence of the cytoskeletal architecture. This session will include both experimental and theoretical work in the area.

Organizers: M.W. Gramlich, A. Tabei

3.1.20: Glass formation and dynamics in nanostructure polymers and glasses (DPOLY, GSNP) [same as 1.1.4]

In diverse glass-forming materials, nanoscale proximity to and nanoconfinement by internal or external interfaces can lead to significant alterations in the glass transition and associated dynamic and mechanical properties. These effects, particularly in polymer thin films, have been heavily studied over the last 20 years because of possible connections to growing dynamical length scales that are hypothesized to underlie the glass transition. More practically, they appear to have substantial effects on material properties in next-generation nanostructured, hybrid, and nanoscaled materials for use in filtration, bioengineering, and energy technologies, as well as in long-standing technologies such as filled rubbers and structural semicrystalline polymers. Understanding dynamical perturbations near these interfaces therefore has important implications for the rational control of material properties. This focus session welcomes all contributions aimed at illuminating characteristics of the glass transition in these diverse materials.

Organizers: C. Roth (Emory University), D. Simmons (University of Akron)

3.1.21: Facilitating Ion Transport: The Role of Structure, Dynamics, and Reaction Rates in Ion Containing Polymers (DPOLY/GSNP) [same as 1.1.3]

There is a tremendous need to facilitate ion transport in polymers that are used in electrochemical energy storage and delivery technologies. The problem is that ions diffuse slowly through polymers, making ion transport the rate limiting step to realize higher power energy storage devices. However, ways to enhance ion mobility through polymer base membranes and electrolytes have been hampered by the complexity of the transport mechanism. One has to take into account the interactions of the active ions with the counter ions in the system, the strength of these ionic interactions, the ionic state of the mobile ions, the nature of the counter ions and whether they are free to move or are covalently attached to the polymeric host, the potential for ionic aggregates in the system, and the collective nature by which the dynamics of the polymeric transport media couple to the mobile ions. This is a challenge because it requires correlating polymer dynamics with ion dynamics, resolving the chemical state of the relevant species that is responsible for ion transport and quantifying their concentration, an understanding of both the relevant diffusion coefficients and rate constants for the system, and lastly the nature by which any structure in the ionic aggregates influences transport. This Focus session will emphasize experimental characterization techniques, simulation and modeling, and theoretical frameworks that improve our basic understanding of ion transport and help to realize polymeric materials with enhanced ion transport.

Organizers: C. Soles (NIST), E. Gomez (Penn State University)

3.1.22: Physics of liquids (GSOFT, GSNP) [same as 2.1.13]

Liquids, ubiquitous on earth, are prototypical disordered condensed matter. Furthermore, when the temperature is lowered or raised across phase transition lines, liquids can often be supercooled or superheated to thermodynamically metastable states, as consequences of competition and delicate balance between interparticle interactions and entropic forces. The phase behaviors of liquids and glasses are exceptionally rich, and in-depth understanding of them requires the development of new theoretical concepts and new experimental techniques. Accordingly, the physics of liquids and metastable liquids have attracted much attention in the recent decades. In addition, numerous soft and biological materials of amazing far-from-equilibrium complexity seem to share many intriguing features of liquids and glasses. Therefore, quantitative descriptions of the structure and dynamics of liquids and metastable liquids and in-depth understanding of the nature of glass transition will likely impact a wide range of disciplines in physics, chemistry, and materials science and engineering. The proposed session at APS March Meeting will focus on the forefront of the research on liquids, from fresh theoretical treatments and computations to cutting-edge experimental techniques.

Organizers: Y. Zhang (University of Illinois), H.E. Stanley (Boston University), C.A. Angell (Arizona State University)

3.1.23: Mechanical singularities in soft matter (GSOFT, GSNP) [same as 2.1.14]

Soft materials are easily pushed to extreme mechanical states. This is naturally the case in fracture and friction, where strain localization around crack tips leads to singular stress fields, and where energy injected at the macroscopic scale is transported all the way down to the atomic scale where dissipation occurs by the irreversible breakage of individual bonds. A similar kind of physics play a role in a broad variety of related problems involving instabilities in swelling polymers and growing tissues, but also in adhesion and wetting dynamics on soft surfaces. Understanding the physics of materials under such extreme conditions is challenging, because it covers a huge range of length scales, and requires strongly non-linear and out-of-equilibrium approaches. Recent developments and new experimental and theoretical tools make it possible to study these phenomena with increasing resolution. The goal of this focus session is to highlight recent developments on "mechanical singularities in soft matter", viewed from different communities such as fluid physics, interfaces, fracture physics, and soft matter.

Organizers: J. Dijksman (Wageningen UR), J. van der Gucht (Wageningen UR), J. Snoeijer (University of Twente)

3.1.24: Organization of soft materials far from equilibrium (GSOFT, GSNP) [same as 2.1.16, 4.1.31]

Out-of-equilibrium statistical mechanics present the contemporary theoretical and experimental challenges in soft matter physics and play a pivotal role in nature. The objective of this focus session is to present new and noteworthy studies in the fields of collective structural formation, flow and organization of soft materials when the system is far from equilibrium. Dynamical aspects of the self-assembly of gels, polymers, and membranes will be covered with a balanced emphasis on novel theories, computational science, and experiments. This focus session will encourage the dissemination of unpublished and recent results that will stimulate productive discussions and attendance.

Organizers: R. Beck (Tel Aviv University), C. Leal (University of Illinois)

3.1.25: Creating function through geometry: from 3D printing to programmable matter and beyond (GSOFT, GSNP, DPOLY, FIAP) [same as 2.1.17, 1.1.20]

Form and function are inextricably linked throughout physics, materials science and mathematics. Complex geometries often help dictate the physical and material properties of objects. Our symposium aims to unite multidisciplinary approaches to generating specific geometries and using them to design properties, focusing on methods ranging from new materials and techniques in 3D printing to mathematical approaches to the inverse problem of designing physical properties from intricate geometries.

Organizers: P.-T. Brun (MIT) , E.A. Matsumoto , F. Gosselin (Polytechnique Montreal), J.T.B. Overvelde (AMOLF)

4: BIOLOGICAL PHYSICS (DBIO)

4.1.1: Bring order from disorder with intrinsically disordered proteins

Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDP) are functionally important in cells, particularly in cell signaling and regulations. Intrinsically disordered proteins are also widely recognized as important targets for drug discoveries. What types of protein sequences lead to intrinsically disordered proteins? How can intrinsically disordered proteins perform a wide range of important biological functions? Physics of proteins are expected to make deep insights to this rapidly growing field. To the best of our knowledge, no focused sessions nor invited sessions have been organized on intrinsically disordered proteins in DBIO. Thus the goal of this focus session is to bring the awareness and to stimulate the research interests in intrinsically disordered proteins in DBIO and other APS units.

Organizers: Aihua Xie (Oklahoma State University)

4.1.2: Photoreceptor and signal transduction

This Focus Session is part of a set of three proposed Focus Sessions in the area of the Physics of Proteins that we propose for the 2017 APS March Meeting will bring together leading experts on the physics of proteins, particularly photoreceptor and signal transduction. These systems are of great interest not only because of the opportunities for spectroscopic and time-resolved measurements that they offer, but also through their applications in a range of areas (from cell biology to neurobiology) through the rapidly developing field of optogenetics. The session will provide a platform for presenting and discussing novel insights into the physics of proteins obtained through computational and experimental approaches.

Organizers: Wouter D. Hoff (Oklahoma State University), Andrea Markelz (University of Buffalo, SUNY), Corey O'Hern (Yale Unviersity), Wei Wang (Nanjing Univeristy, China), Aihua Xie (Oklahoma State University), Dongping Zhong (Ohio State University), Donghua Zhou (Oklahoma State University)

4.1.3: Virus capsid protein dynamics

This Focus Session is part of a set of three proposed Focus Sessions in the area of the Physics of Proteins that we propose for the 2017 APS March Meeting will bring together leading experts on the physics of proteins, in particular the important protein dynamics that lead to viral capsid state change. These systems are highly interesting both from a fundamental physics stand point and a societal concern. Viral capsids which enclose the genetic material undergo a state change that leads to the capsid rupture and injection of the genetic material after the virus has attached to the cell. Biological physicists use large scale molecular modeling and recently have had some success in measuring the molecular and system physical properties. The session will provide a platform for presenting and discussing novel insights into the physics of proteins obtained through computational and experimental approaches.

Organizers: Wouter D. Hoff (Oklahoma State University), Andrea Markelz (University of Buffalo, SUNY), Corey O'Hern (Yale Unviersity), Wei Wang (Nanjing Univeristy, China), Aihua Xie (Oklahoma State University), Dongping Zhong (Ohio State University), Donghua Zhou (Oklahoma State University)

4.1.4: Physics of proteins association and recognition

Proteins are the workhorses in a cell. They are nano-sized macromolecules that can interact and form a dynamic network for transducing signals vital to a cell’s survival. However, a physical description of how it works from a molecular to a sub-cellular level remains unclear. A major obstacle is a lack of physical understanding of proteins as molecular modules that selectively target partners from competing pathways. This session is timely because there has been a vast interest from the DBIO community in understanding the physics of protein dynamics. Now we wanted to move this field forward by addressing how proteins come along as modules and make decisions for specific functions through selective binding.

Organizers: Margaret Cheung (University of Houston)

4.1.5: Self-organization in bacteria colonies and suspensions (DBIO, GSNP) [same as 3.1.15]

Self-organization in bacteria colonies and suspensions

Organizers: Hugues Chaté (CEA)

4.1.6: Active matter under confinement (GSOFT, DBIO, GSNP) [same as 2.1.3, 3.1.3]

No Description Provided

4.1.7: Physics of the cytoskeleton

How active and passive components of the cellular cytoskeleton interact to impact its function, organization and mechanical properties. The concept of active matter as an interesting field of research within APS is evidenced by the 10 focus and invited sessions on various aspects of this topic at the 2016 March Meeting (including Active Matter I-V and Active Matter: Collective Phenomena in Living Systems I-V). There were certainly lots of papers in these sessions on the cytoskeleton, but also plenty that were on non-living active matter. It would be useful for physicists in DBIO to have a 2017 active matter session focused on the cellular cytoskeleton.

Organizer: M. Shane Huston (Vanderbilt University)

4.1.8: Neural control of behavior

How animals move has been a decades-long focus in biomechanics, which attempts to link organism-scale dynamics to the control strategies that actuate them. Lacking however, have been direct connections between these motions and the underlying neural mechanisms. The recent advent of minimally-invasive tools for measuring and manipulating neurons in freely behaving animals is providing new insights to the neural basis of control, and physicists are making important contributions to these advances. We will construct our session from a diverse range of these efforts — from the development of novel microscopy and data analysis tools to the building of theoretical, computational, and robotic models. Our invited speaker, Misha Ahrens (HHMI Janelia), is at the forefront of combining whole brain imaging with behavioral and neural modeling, and would make a compelling centerpiece for this session.

Organizer: Gordon J Berman (Emory University), Greg J Stephens (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam & Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology)

4.1.9: Non-equilibrium dynamics of neural circuits (DBIO, GSNP) [same as 3.1.16]

This session will discuss how statistics of connectivity in neural networks influences its functional properties, including transition to chaotic behavior, transient amplification, short-term memory and others. There is a long trandition of modeling neural circuits using Ising-type models and tools from random matrix theory. Recent advances in the theory of random matrices, in particular for non-normal connectivity matrices highlight how network plasticity can have a major impact on network function. Recent results also open new avenues for network engineering. Given that similar approaches were used to model intracellular processing, this focus session should be of interest to other subfields of physics outside of neuroscience.

Organizer: Tatyana O. Sharpee (Salk Institute for Biological Studies)

4.1.10: Advances in cellular and multicellular imaging

This session focuses on novel biophysical methodologies that enable noninvasive monitoring of cells and tissues. Noninvasive observation of cells and their behavior in their natural context is important for our understanding of cellular biology from development to disease. Over the last few years new imaging approaches have been developed that allow the non-invasive observation of biophysical properties, such as, e.g., the mechanical state of a cell, in cell cultures and complete tissues. These novel probes promise a quantum leap in our understanding of cellular biology within physiologically relevant contexts. The focus session will bring together practitioners of these techniques to discuss the biophysical principles of the imaging approaches and the biological insights gained using these approaches.

Organizer: Ralf Bundschuh (Ohio State University)

4.1.11: Tracking, Localization and Inference in Live Cells: Methods and Applications

This session is focused on inference in biophysics with a special emphasis on in vivo systems. Accurate localization and tracking algorithms as well as principled inference methods are critical in achieving high time and spatial resolution. Our speakers will talk about both algorithmic development as well as applications of such methods to understand processes as they occur in live cells.

Organizer: Steve Presse (IUPUI)

4.1.12: Physics of genome organization: from DNA to chromatin (DBIO, GSNP) [same as 3.1.17]

Information needed by all cells to survive and proliferate is encoded in the sequence of nucleotides in genomic DNA. In eukaryotes, DNA is packaged into chromatin — a complex multi-scale structure which ensures that all chromosomes fit into the tight confines of the cell nucleus. However, DNA in this packaged state must either remain accessible to various DNA-binding proteins such as transcription factors (which turn genes on and off), or be made accessible rapidly and robustly in response to various challenges facing the cell throughout its life cycle. This dilemma of packaging and accessibility has recently attracted a lot of attention from the biological physics community, with methods from polymer physics, statistical mechanics, and condensed matter physics being applied to understand DNA folding and dynamics, as well as chromatin structure and function. This session will focus on the latest developments in this rapidly advancing field, bringing together experimental and theoretical scientists in the fields of chromatin and DNA.

Organizer: Alexandre V. Morozov (Rutgers University), Leonid Mirny (MIT)

4.1.13: Evolutionary dynamics of genomes

How do collective effects impact genome evolution? Genomes can be viewed as collections of genes, regulatory DNA, mobile elements, endogenous viral elements, and many other pieces and parts that control or contribute to a wide range of molecular processes. Selection for biological function at the level of cells and organisms imposes constraints on all of these processes, yet we are currently far from understanding how such collective effects impact genomic evolution. This session will highlight diverse evolutionary phenomena that operate at the global genomic scale, with the goal of elucidating evolutionary mechanisms that constrain or drive the collective behaviors of genomes. We seek a wide range of talks covering diverse biological systems and approaches ranging from theory to experiment.

Organziers: Benjamin Greenbaurm (Icahn School of Medicine at Mt. Sinai), Edo Kussello (New York University)

4.1.14: Statistical mechanics applied to ecology (DBIO, GSNP) [same as 3.1.18]

Tools of statistical mechanics applied to problems in ecology, such as understanding biodiversity. The subject is of great societal importance even as we find ourselves in the midst of an extinction crisis. Ideas from physics play a key role in this interdisciplinary field. It has been a long time since such topics have been discussed at APS Meetings.

Organizers: Marek Cieplak (Polish Academy of Sciences)

4.1.15: Knotted biomolecules

Topological transformations in biomolecules are of basic interdisciplinary interest. There are new developments concerning the biological role of the knots and the role of the nascent conditions in the folding of proteins with knots. This session will focus on the behavior of knotted proteins and DNA molecules.

Organizers: Jayanth R. Banavar (University of Maryland)

4.1.16: The Structure and dynamics of confined biopolymers (DBIO, DPOLY) [same as 1.1.23]

The advent of soft lithography and the ability to construct nanopores have created a variety of new experimental platforms to study biopolymers, with potential for rapid gene sequencing. Real world applications require a deep understanding of the conformations and dynamics of biopolymers under confinement, potentially complicated by external fields, intra-chain interactions, or hydrodynamics. This session will bring together experimental and theoretical researchers to discuss current experimental setups, simulation techniques, and theoretical knowledge.

Organizers: Greg Morrison (University of Houston)

4.1.17: Physics of load-bearing biological and bioinspired materials

This focus session will explore the interplay between dynamic structure and mechanical properties in soft load-bearing materials found in and inspired by nature using experiment, theory and computation. These complex materials are typically hierarchical and multiphase, with heterogeneities including particle and fiber inclusions, pores, internal interfaces, and gradients that impact load transfer and strength. At the same time, the presence of multiple bonding schemes, both dynamic and covalent, offers new time and length scales for stress dissipation and recovery. Understanding the foundational physical properties of these materials will allow new insight into living matter while opening new avenues for the generation of tough, strong, self-configuring, self-healing materials.

Organizers: Megan Valentine (University of California, Santa Barbara), Niels Holten-Andersen (MIT)

4.1.18: Physics at Bio-Nano interface (DBIO, DPOLY) [same as 1.1.21]

Understanding bio-nano interactions are essential to optimize the design of a synthetic bio-sensor or a novel nano-medicine. In this session, speakers will present experimental, theoretical and numerical approaches to study the bio-nano interactions.

Organizers: Binquan Luan (IBM T J Watson Research)

4.1.19: Mechanical patterning in cells and tissues

Mechanical forces are key contributors to intracellular organization and morphogenesis. Tissue engineering, the controlled construction of tissues — cells and their extracellular matrix (ECM) environment — is a promising avenue of future biomedical applications. To realize this possibility, the dynamic and mutually interdependent mechanical relationship between cells and the ECM microenvironment has to be understood. Living organisms, from bacteria to vertebrates, are well known to generate sophisticated multicellular patterns. It is widely assumed that adhesion-based activities such as exertion of traction and compressional forces, shape-change and motility are the physical means by which tissues and organs are formed. However, our knowledge is limited about how collective cell behavior creates a specific physical tissue or organ. With the advent of tissue engineering, the problem of how cells assemble and maintain a certain functional structure is now in the front line of research. Understanding emergent phenomena in cell and developmental biology requires an interdisciplinary approach: One has to deal with physical objects and the laws that govern their behavior, which requires the use of quantitative, mathematical methods and computationally intensive measurement techniques to follow and analyze a large number of disparate components.

Organizer: Andras Czirok (University of Kansas)

4.1.20: Physics of cellular organization (DBIO, GSNP) [same as 3.1.19]

The keynote talks of this session will highlight the role of cooperative motility in live cell vesicle transport and how structural defects can affect long-range transport. This year builds on the 2015 session which highlighted the synergy of spatial and temporal heterogeneity at different scales, as well as the 2016 session which highlighted the role of cytoskeleton dynamics in cellular function. In this session we will emphasize to negative role of perturbations across different scales of cellular organization; from transport along cytoskeletal networks to the influence of the cytoskeletal architecture. This session will include both experimental and theoretical work in the area.

Organizers: Michael W. Gramlich (Washington University), Ali Tabei (University of Northern Iowa)

4.1.21: Physics of development and disease

Physics is key to a wide range of biological processes in development and disease, including cancer tumorigenesis, embryonic development, and wound healing. Many cellular processes that are essential elements in embryonic deployment such as the epithelial-mesenchymal transition are reactivated in cancer cells and drive tumor progression. Thus on the cellular scale development and disease are closely related. In these processes, the physical characteristics of cells is quintessential as cells must move, rearrange, change shape, and support stresses and strains. Since the physical characteristics are based on structure and dynamics of the biological building blocks which depend on biochemical signals and genetics, understanding the physics of development and disease requires close interaction between physical scientists and experts in development and disease. In the past few years, such collaborations have begun to take off, with soft matter scientists and biophysicists, as well as biologists and biomedical engineers, working together to develop a new toolkit for characterizing the role of forces, mechanics, and collective behavior and understand how mechanical signaling interacts with biochemical signaling in these processes. The aim of this session is to identify open questions where joint research work may be successful within the next two or three years and better organize our nascent community to support this research.

Organizer: Kandice Tanner (NCI/NIH)

4.1.22: Principles of cellular remodeling

This focus session will explore on the broad topic of cellular remodeling on multiple length and time scales, ranging from intracellular reorganization and dynamics during division, invasion and morphogenesis, to cellular level motions that occur during tissue development to large-scale organ-level remodeling. Experimental, theoretical and computational approaches will be used to understand how structures are controllably created and destroyed, how these activities are coupled to cellular and tissue function, and how stresses and other signals are transmitted and sensed in such a dynamic, stochastic environment.

Organizers: Megan Valentine (Univeristy of California, Santa Barbara), Dinah Loerke (University of Denver)

4.1.23: Specificity, Recognition and Coding in Molecular Biology

How do you recognize and talk to your partner in a crowded room without being overheard by others? Variants of this question are central to a diverse range of biological systems — immunology, lfaction, signal transduction, transcription factor specificity, CRISPR, molecular self-assembly and many others. Recent work has revealed a wealth of coding and decoding strategies across these diverse systems that allow many distinct molecular species to solve discrimination and recognition problems in high dimensional space. This session welcomes abstracts on any such question involving discrimination, crosstalk, recognition or faithful signal transduction in biological systems.

Organizers: Arvind Murugan (University of Chicago)

4.1.24: Machine learning for modeling and control (DBIO, GSNP, DCOMP) [same as 3.1.14, 16.1.12]

For inanimate systems, it’s often not that hard to write down the equations describing the underlying dynamics using the first principles (solving them, of course, is much harder). For biological systems, microscopic first-principles based descriptions are too unwieldy, and macroscopic, phenomenological laws are few and far between. There’s a growing body of literature focused on “guessing” such phenomenological laws directly from data. (Parenthetically, the same is true for many other complex systems, such as various social systems, as has been seen in the burgeoning field of econophysics.) This session will be a venue for sharing new results on inferences of dynamical models of biological systems from data, focusing on multitude of scales from cellular networks, to ecology. The focus will be on domain discoveries, and not on methods development.

Organizer: Ilya Nemenman (Emory University)

4.1.25: New Mesophase Symmetries and Topologies in Self-Assembled Soft Matter (GSOFT, DBIO) [same as 2.1.18]

4.1.26: Computational Physics at the Petascale and Beyond (DCOMP, DBIO) [same as 5.1.8, 16.1.4]

4.1.27: Collective dynamics: fluid physics of life (GSNP, DBIO) [same as 3.1.1]

4.1.28: Statistical mechanics of active matter (GSNP, DBIO) [same as 3.1.2]

4.1.29: Physical properties of the bacterial cytoplasm (GSNP, DBIO) [same as 3.1.10]

4.1.30: Physics of Bio-Inspired Materials (GSOFT, DBIO) [same as 2.1.12]

4.1.31: Organization of Soft Materials Far from Equilibrium (GSOFT, DBIO) [same as 2.1.13, 3.1.24]